Using acoustic wave sensors to follow milk coagulation and to separate the cheeses according to the milk
authors Pais, VF; Verissimo, MIS; Oliveira, JABP; Gomes, MTSR
journal SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL
author keywords Piezoelectric quartz crystal; Acoustic wave sensor; Milk coagulation; Rennet; C. cardunculus L; Electronic nose
keywords QUARTZ-CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE; AT-CUT QUARTZ; ELECTRONIC NOSE; CYNARA-CARDUNCULUS; VOLATILE COMPOUNDS; SHEEP MILK; CHYMOSIN; GELS; CLASSIFICATION; SYSTEMS
abstract Optimum coagulation temperature and cutting time are usually empirically defined. The use of inexpensive acoustic wave sensors to monitor milk coagulation allows monitoring the process in real time, since its early stages. Besides, data are collected with minimum disturbance, which is an advantage over other methodologies, namely rheology. Coagulation of milk was followed by measuring both the frequency and equivalent circuit resistance of a piezoelectric quartz crystal. Three types of milk, ewe, goat and cow, were coagulated using different rennets at three different temperatures. Maximum observed coagulation rate, either with plant or animal rennet, increased with temperature both for ewe and goat milk. Maximum coagulation rate was higher with plant rennet than with animal rennet at 25 degrees C and 32 degrees C, while the opposite was found at 50 degrees C. The time needed to attain maximum coagulation rate was always smaller with ewe's milk than with goat's milk, and maximum coagulation rate was higher with the former. Cow's milk was much more difficult to coagulate and needed twice the rennet quantity used for ewe and goat milk. Cheese obtained with the mentioned types of milk and different rennets shows different flavours, usually perceived by experts and connoisseurs, and that an electronic nose built in our laboratory was also able to distinguish. One sensor was enough to separate cheeses made from cow, ewe and goat milk. Besides, the addition of a second sensor allowed to separate the cheeses by rennet among the ones produced with the same milk. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
publisher ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
issn 0925-4005
year published 2015
volume 207
beginning page 1121
ending page 1128
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.snb.2014.10.025
web of science category Chemistry, Analytical; Electrochemistry; Instruments & Instrumentation
subject category Chemistry; Electrochemistry; Instruments & Instrumentation
unique article identifier WOS:000345895400031
link http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2014.10.025
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