Porcelain stoneware tiles with antimicrobial action
authors Seabra, MP; Grave, L; Oliveira, C; Alves, A; Correia, A; Labrincha, JA
nationality International
journal CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL
author keywords Porcelain stoneware tiles; Black pigment; Antimicrobial; Anti-staining; Chemical resistance
keywords ESCHERICHIA-COLI; ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY; SILVER NANOPARTICLES; STAPHYLOCOCCUS-AUREUS; TOXICITY; MATRIX; METALS; IONS; GOLD
abstract This work reports the development of extruded porcelain stoneware tiles that show antimicrobial (to act as a barrier to the bacteria's growth during a long period of time), and anti-stain (easy to clean) actions, and possess high chemical resistance. The antimicrobial action was proven through the reduction of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. Staining and chemical resistance were tested according to ISO 10545-14 and 10545-13 standards, respectively. The tiles promote a population reduction of over 77% and 81% for the S. aureus and the E. colt bacteria, respectively. The optimized product was obtained by adding 2.5 wt% of a black ceramic pigment to the industrially-prepared paste, followed by the application of a small quantity of glaze (by jet spraying). Chemical (solution of 98 wt% NaNO3 and 2 wt% AgNO3) and thermal (2 h at 430 degrees C) treatments were finally applied to get the active surface. In terms of anti-staining characteristics the tiles belong to class 5, while their chemical resistance is excellent (UA, ULA and UHA) against almost all aggressive agents, except for chloridric acid, 18% (v/v), for which a small surface attack (UHB) was observed. Furthermore, the treatments used (chemical and thermal) do not change the surface aspect of the product, and thus fulfil the industrial/commercial requirements. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.
publisher ELSEVIER SCI LTD
issn 0272-8842
year published 2014
volume 40
issue 4
beginning page 6063
ending page 6070
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.11.056
web of science category Materials Science, Ceramics
subject category Materials Science
unique article identifier WOS:000332268200125
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journal analysis (jcr 2019):
journal impact factor 3.83
5 year journal impact factor 3.513
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 94.643
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