(Eco)toxicity and biodegradability of protic ionic liquids
authors Oliveira, MVS; Vidal, BT; Melo, CM; de Miranda, RDM; Soares, CMP; Coutinho, JAP; Ventura, SPM; Mattedi, S; Lima, AS
nationality International
journal CHEMOSPHERE
author keywords Protic ionic liquids; Antimicrobial activity; Toxicity evaluation; Microtox (R); Phytotoxicity; Biodegradability
keywords FISCHERI MARINE-BACTERIA; ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES; PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES; TERRESTRIAL ECOTOXICITY; PHASE-BEHAVIOR; ALLIUM-CEPA; IMIDAZOLIUM; TOXICITY; ANION; PYRIDINIUM
abstract Ionic liquids (ILs) are often claimed to be "environmentally friendly" compounds however, the knowledge of their potential toxicity towards different organisms and trophic levels is still limited, in particular when protic ionic liquids (PILs) are addressed. This study aims to evaluate the toxicity against various microorganisms and the biodegradability of four PILs namely, N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium acetate, m-2-HEAA; N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium propionate, m-2-HEAPr; N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate, m-2-HEAB; and N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium pentanoate, m-2-HEAP. The antimicrobial activity was determined against the two bacteria, Sthaplylococcus aureus ATCC-6533 and Escherichia coli CCT-0355; the yeast Candida albicans ATCC-76645; and the fungi Fusarium sp. LM03. The toxicity of all PILs was tested against the aquatic luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri using the Microtox (R) test. The impact of the PILs was also studied regarding their effect on lettuce seeds (Lactuta sativa). The biodegradability of these PILs was evaluated using the ratio between the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The results show that, in general, the elongation of the alkyl chain tends to increase the negative impact of the PILs towards the organisms and biological systems under study. According to these results, m-2-HEM and m-2-HEAP are the less and most toxic PILs studied in this work, respectively. Additionally, all the PILs have demonstrated low biodegradability. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
publisher PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
issn 0045-6535
year published 2016
volume 147
beginning page 460
ending page 466
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.11.016
web of science category Environmental Sciences
subject category Environmental Sciences & Ecology
unique article identifier WOS:000370836100059
  ciceco authors
  impact metrics
times cited (wos core): 7
journal impact factor (jcr 2016): 4.208
5 year journal impact factor (jcr 2016): 4.506
category normalized journal impact factor percentile (jcr 2016): 86.245
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