Efficacy and Ecotoxicity of Novel Anti-Fouling Nanomaterials in Target and Non-Target Marine Species
authors Avelelas, F; Martins, R; Oliveira, T; Maia, F; Malheiro, E; Soares, AMVM; Loureiro, S; Tedim, J
nationality International
journal MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY
author keywords Biofouling; Nanomaterials; Pyrithione; Marine species; Toxicity assessment
keywords ACTIVE CORROSION PROTECTION; MUSSEL MYTILUS-EDULIS; ZINC PYRITHIONE; ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY; ANTIFOULING BIOCIDES; ENVIRONMENTAL FATE; COPPER PYRITHIONE; ACUTE TOXICITY; COATINGS; NANOCONTAINERS
abstract Biofouling is a global problem that affects virtually all the immersed structures. Currently, several novel environmentally friendly approaches are being tested worldwide to decrease the toxicity of biocides in non-fouling species, such as the encapsulation/immobilization of commercially available biocides, in order to achieve control over the leaching rate. The present study addresses the toxicity of two widely used booster biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT), in its free and incorporated forms in order to assess their toxicity and anti-fouling efficacy in target and non-target species. To achieve this goal, the following marine organisms were tested; the green microalgae Tetraselmis chuii (non-target species) and both target species, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the mussel Mytilus edulis. Organisms were exposed to both biocides, two unloaded nanostructured materials and nanomaterials loaded with biocides, from 10 mu g/L to 100 mg/L total weight, following standard protocols. The most eco-friendly and simultaneously efficient anti-fouling solution against the two photosynthetic species (nanoclays loaded with ZnPT) was then tested on mussels to assess its lethal efficacy (LC50 = 123 mu g/L) and compared with free biocide (LC50 = 211 mu g/L) and unloaded material (LC50 > 1000 mu g/L). A second exposure test with sub-lethal concentrations (lower than 100 mu g/L), using mussels, was carried out to assess biochemical changes caused by the tested compounds. Oxidative stress, detoxification and neurotransmission markers were not responsive; however, different antioxidant patterns were found with free ZnPT and loaded nanoclay exposures. Thus, the immobilization of the biocide ZnPT into nanoclays proved to be a promising efficient and eco-friendly anti-fouling strategy.
publisher SPRINGER
issn 1436-2228
isbn 1436-2236
year published 2017
volume 19
issue 2
beginning page 164
ending page 174
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1007/s10126-017-9740-1
web of science category Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology; Marine & Freshwater Biology
subject category Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology; Marine & Freshwater Biology
unique article identifier WOS:000400108400005
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journal impact factor (jcr 2016): 2.748
5 year journal impact factor (jcr 2016): 2.902
category normalized journal impact factor percentile (jcr 2016): 74.263
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