Deep Eutectic Solvents as Efficient Media for the Extraction and Recovery of Cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. Leaves
authors de Faria, ELP; do Carmo, RS; Claudio, AFM; Freire, CSR; Freire, MG; Silvestre, AJD
nationality International
journal INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
author keywords deep eutectic solvent; aqueous solution; cynaropicrin; extraction; recovery
keywords AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS; IONIC LIQUIDS; ENHANCED EXTRACTION; CHOLINE CHLORIDE; GREEN; FLAVONOIDS; ADDITIVES; ACIDS
abstract In recent years a high demand for natural ingredients with nutraceutical properties has been witnessed, for which the development of more environmentally-friendly and cost-efficient extraction solvents and methods play a primary role. In this perspective, in this work, the application of deep eutectic solvents (DES), composed of quaternary ammonium salts and organic acids, as alternative solvents for the extraction of cynaropicrin from Cynara cardunculus L. leaves was studied. After selecting the most promising DES, their aqueous solutions were investigated, allowing to obtain a maximum cynaropicrin extraction yield of 6.20 wt %, using 70 wt % of water. The sustainability of the extraction process was further optimized by carrying out several extraction cycles, reusing either the biomass or the aqueous solutions of DES. A maximum cynaropicrin extraction yield of 7.76 wt % by reusing the solvent, and of 8.96 wt % by reusing the biomass, have been obtained. Taking advantage of the cynaropicrin solubility limit in aqueous solutions, water was added as an anti-solvent, allowing to recover 73.6 wt % of the extracted cynaropicrin. This work demonstrates the potential of aqueous solutions of DES for the extraction of value-added compounds from biomass and the possible recovery of both the target compounds and solvents.
publisher MDPI AG
issn 1422-0067
year published 2017
volume 18
issue 11
digital object identifier (doi) 10.3390/ijms18112276
web of science category Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Chemistry, Multidisciplinary
subject category Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Chemistry
unique article identifier WOS:000416811300050
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journal analysis (jcr 2017):
journal impact factor 3.687
5 year journal impact factor 3.878
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 69.668
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