The antagonist and synergist potential of cholinium-based deep eutectic solvents
authors Macario, IPE; Ventura, SPM; Pereira, JL; Goncalves, AMM; Coutinho, JAP; Goncalves, FJM
nationality International
journal ECOTOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY
author keywords Deep Eutectic Solvents; Cholinium chloride; Hydrogen-Bond Donor and Acceptor; Microtox (R) test; Toxic units; Synergistic and antagonist effects
keywords AQUEOUS BIPHASIC SYSTEMS; CLASSIFYING ENVIRONMENTAL-POLLUTANTS; TOXICITY; CHLORIDE; MIXTURES; WATER; BIODEGRADABILITY; CYTOTOXICITY; EXTRACTION; ALCOHOLS
abstract The design of environmentally friendlier solvents has gained increasing relevance in the last decade. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) have recently emerged, with advantages like low-cost and putative lower environmental impact. However, information about DES toxicity is still scarce. This work aims to contribute to profiling the ecotoxicity of DES based on cholinium chloride ([Chol]Cl). Six DES were addressed, combining [Chol]Cl (as hydrogen bond acceptor HBA) with ethylene glycol, glycerol, 1,2-propanediol, propionic acid, 1-propanol, and urea as hydrogen bond donors (HBD), in different molar ratios. The Microtox (R). Acute Toxicity Test, was used for assessing their toxicity towards the marine bacteria Allivibrio fischeri. Because the dissociation of DES in water is expected, analysis appraising the mixtures toxicity theory should be considered, which is a step forward in this field. This analysis suggested that [Chol]Cl and all HBD with the exception of propionic acid:[Chol]Cl 1:2 and 4:1 behave antagonistically, which is contrary to what has been suggested previously. The most extreme cases are Urea: [Chol]Cl and 1-Propanol:[Chol]Cl, with EC50 values higher than their starting materials dosed singly, configuring very promising and biocompatible alternative solvents. Toxicity was found to be dependent on DES composition, as well as on molar proportions of the starting materials.
publisher ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
issn 0147-6513
year published 2018
volume 165
beginning page 597
ending page 602
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.027
web of science category Environmental Sciences; Toxicology
subject category Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Toxicology
unique article identifier WOS:000447484000071

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