Preserve Your Books through the Smell
authors Verissimo, MIS; Oliveira, JABP; Evtuguin, DV; Gomes, MTSR
nationality International
journal ACS SENSORS
author keywords electronic nose; acoustic wave sensor array; volatile organic compounds; paper; cultural heritage; non-destructive analysis
keywords VOLATILE ORGANIC-COMPOUNDS; ELECTRONIC NOSE; PAPER; CHEMISTRY; IDENTIFICATION
abstract The identification of paper composition, pH, early signs of paper degradation, and emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are mandatory for effective preventive conservation of paper/books. Sampling restrictions in the analysis of cultural heritage materials limit the choice of appropriate analytical methods. Solvent-free analytical techniques with nondestructive sampling are needed. Addressing this challenge, an electronic nose based on six-coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was assembled and used to analyze VOCs emitted from books. Careful selection of sensor coatings and cluster analysis allowed us to achieve a clear distinction between cotton/linen rag and wood pulp paper, and among the letter group, the discrimination between papers manufactured from alkaline and acidic stocks. This six-element sensor array was therefore able to replace destructive tests as the ones ordinarily used for paper pH measurements. The same electronic nose was able to separate aged pale-yellow paper, a visible initial sign of paper degradation, from well-preserved still white papers, even when made from the same raw material. One of the used sensors detected furfural, often seen as a marker of cellulose degradation, at lower levels than the detection limit found in the literature with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a much more complex bulky and expensive instrument.
publisher AMER CHEMICAL SOC
issn 2379-3694
year published 2019
volume 4
issue 11
beginning page 2915
ending page 2921
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1021/acssensors.9b01279
web of science category Chemistry, Multidisciplinary; Chemistry, Analytical; Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
subject category Chemistry; Science & Technology - Other Topics
unique article identifier WOS:000499737100012
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journal analysis (jcr 2019):
journal impact factor 7.333
5 year journal impact factor 7.599
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 86.435
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