Recycling of chromium-rich leather ashes in porcelain tiles production
authors Fernandes, HR; Ferreira, JMF
nationality International
journal JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY
author keywords firing; chromium-rich ashes
keywords CARCINOGENICITY; TOXICITY; PIGMENTS
abstract Leather residues derived from shoes industry are often incinerated in winter times to warm the working ambient, giving rise to the production of chromium-rich ashes that put environmental problems on its disposal. The power of these ashes as colouring and fluxing agent for industrial porcelain tile formulations and the effects of incorporating different amounts on water absorption and bending strength were evaluated in tile present work along a broad sintering temperature range of 1120-1180 degrees C. The experimental results revealed that the incorporation of these wastes can result in porcelain tiles with superior properties, in terms of water adsorption, density and bending strength. The results also showed the possibility Of using these wastes as colouring agents to obtain broad range tonality products from cream to dark brown, depending on the added amount of leather ashes in the formulation and on the sintering temperature. The observed improvements of the final properties of the material and the ability of chromium-rich ashes to replace expensive pigments show that their incorporating in porcelain tiles formulations is a smart way of recycling this environmental dangerous leather derived waste. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
publisher ELSEVIER SCI LTD
issn 0955-2219
year published 2007
volume 27
issue 16
beginning page 4657
ending page 4663
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2007.03.037
web of science category Materials Science, Ceramics
subject category Materials Science
unique article identifier WOS:000251803600028
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journal analysis (jcr 2017):
journal impact factor 3.794
5 year journal impact factor 3.536
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 98.148
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