Hidden value in low-cost inorganic pigments as potentially valuable magnetic materials
authors Novais, RM; Seabra, MP; Amaral, JS; Pullar, RC
nationality International
journal CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL
author keywords Electrical conductivity; Inorganic pigments; Magnetic materials; Spinel ferrites
keywords SUBSTITUTED COBALT FERRITES; BLACK CERAMIC PIGMENTS; AUTO COMBUSTION METHOD; ELECTRICAL-PROPERTIES; CHROMATIC PROPERTIES; HEXAFERRITE
abstract Inorganic pigments are substances that develop colour in organic solids such as ceramics and glazes, and are usually a complex mixture of oxides, and relatively low-cost. Their chromatic properties have been extensively studied, yet surprisingly the magnetic and electrical properties of these economic and common materials have been neglected, despite the fact many are based on ferrite spinels. Therefore, we investigated these properties in commercial black and brown pigments, to assess their potential as magnetic materials. The brown and black pigments were found to be spinel ferrites, with estimated formulas of Fe1.34Cr0.62Mn0.66Zn0.22Ni0.10Co0.06O4 and Fe1.02Cr0.97Co0.57Mn0.23Ni0.21O4, respectively. The brown pigment also contained a higher amount of SiO2 compared to the black pigment (similar to 7 mol% vs. similar to 2 mol%), which appeared as a second phase of crystalline quartz, and adversely affected its porosity, magnetisation and electrical ac conductivity, compared to the black pigment. However, both were very magnetic and very soft ferrites. The brown pigment had M-s=11.7 A m(2) kg(-1) and H-c of 1.5 kA m(-1), with a high electrical conductivity (sigma) of 4 x 10(-4)-7 x 10(-3) Omega(-1) m(-1) between 100 Hz and 1 MHz. The black pigment was equally magnetically soft, but had a much greater magnetisation and lower electrical conductivity, with M-s=18.7 A m(2) kg(-1), H-c=2.4 kA m(-1), and sigma=5 x 10(-6)-8 x 10(-5) Omega(-1) m(-1) between 100 Hz and 1 MHz. This work has revealed the potential hidden value of low-cost commercial inorganic pigments based on spinel ferrites as magnetic materials. This demonstrates their potential at low-cost alternative materials for applications such as in power supply transformers, switching materials and sensors, where soft magnetisation is especially important. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.
publisher ELSEVIER SCI LTD
issn 0272-8842
year published 2016
volume 42
issue 8
beginning page 9605
ending page 9612
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.03.045
web of science category Materials Science, Ceramics
subject category Materials Science
unique article identifier WOS:000374811600038
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journal impact factor 3.057
5 year journal impact factor 2.882
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