Clove and cinnamon: Novel anti-oxidant fuels for preparing magnetic iron oxide particles by the sol-gel auto-ignition method
authors Bena-Arfa, BAE; Salvado, IMM; Ferreira, JMF; Pullar, RC
nationality International
journal JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS
author keywords Maghemite; Auto ignition; Clove; Cinnamon; Magnetic iron oxide particles; Eco-fuel
keywords ALOE-VERA; SILVER NANOPARTICLES; RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY; GREEN SYNTHESIS; ESSENTIAL OIL; BIOSYNTHESIS; TEMPERATURE; AROMATICUM; MAGHEMITE; EXTRACTS
abstract Magnetic spinel ferrite particles were successfully prepared from only iron (III) nitrate, using clove and cinnamon plant extracts for the first time as eco-fuels for auto-ignition synthesis. Both natural substances were shown to play dual roles in the synthesis of the magnetic particles; i.e. as fuels (agents for biogenic reduction), and as anti-oxidants for preserving the magnetic phases during subsequent heating. In this regard, no special protective environments such as H-2/N-2 or argon gases were required during the heat stabilisation process, and samples could be stabilised by heating to 550 degrees C in air. The magnetic crystalline phase is mostly maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) rather than magnetite (Fe3O4), as revealed by Raman, since no Raman active phonon modes were detected for magnetite, and most of the bands were related to maghemite, with traces of hematite. Both fuels produced strongly magnetic soft ferrites, with magnetisation values of 75 A m(2) kg(-1), around the expected ones for maghemite Moreover, TG curves showed that maghemite degradation only occurs at relatively high temperatures, namely at 550 degrees C for Clove, and at 744 degrees C for Cinnamon, confirming the sustainable nature of the as-obtained materials against oxidation. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
publisher ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA
issn 0925-8388
isbn 1873-4669
year published 2019
volume 786
beginning page 71
ending page 76
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.01.306
web of science category Chemistry, Physical; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering
subject category Chemistry; Materials Science; Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering
unique article identifier WOS:000461778600009
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journal analysis (jcr 2019):
journal impact factor 4.65
5 year journal impact factor 4.082
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 77.703
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