Toxicity of engineered micro- and nanomaterials with antifouling properties to the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryonic stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus
authors Gutner-Hoch, E; Martins, R; Maia, F; Oliveira, T; Shpigel, M; Weis, M; Tedim, J; Benayahu, Y
nationality International
journal ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
author keywords Fouling; Engineered micro/nanomaterials (EMNMs); Layered double hydroxides (LDH); Silica mesoporous nanocapsules (SiNC); Polyurea microcapsules (PU); Pyrithione
keywords ZINC PYRITHIONE; CORROSION PROTECTION; COPPER; BIOCIDES; COATINGS; EMBRYOTOXICITY; ECOTOXICITY; COMBINATION; CADMIUM
abstract Antifouling booster biocides are chemicals used in protective paints to tackle the adhesion of fouling organisms to maritime artificial structures. However, they are also known to exert toxic effects on non target organisms. Recent research developments have highlighted the potential use of engineered micro/nanomaterials (EMNMs) as carriers of antifouling booster biocides in order to control their release and to reduce the harmful effects on living biota. In the present study, we sought to assess the toxicity of two commercially-available booster biocides: (zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT)); three unloaded engineered micro/nanomaterials (EMNMs); layered double hydroxides (LDH), silica nano capsules (SiNC), polyurea microcapsules (PU);, and six novel EMNMs (loaded with each of the two biocides). The exposure tests were conducted on the larval stage (nauplii) of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and on two embryonic developmental stages of the European purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The findings indicate that the unloaded LDH and PU (i.e. both biocide-free EMNMs) have non/low toxic effects on both species. The unloaded SiNC, in contrast, exerted a mild toxic effect on the A. salina nauplii and P. lividus embryos. The free biocides presented different toxicity values, with ZnPT being more toxic than CuPT in the P. lividus assays. LDH-based pyrithiones demonstrated lower toxicity compared to the free forms of the state-of-the-art compounds, and constitute good candidates in terms of their antifouling efficacy. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
publisher ELSEVIER SCI LTD
issn 0269-7491
isbn 1873-6424
year published 2019
volume 251
beginning page 530
ending page 537
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.05.031
web of science category Environmental Sciences
subject category Environmental Sciences & Ecology
unique article identifier WOS:000474329700058
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journal analysis (jcr 2019):
journal impact factor 6.792
5 year journal impact factor 6.939
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 92.264
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