Towards comprehensive utilization of winemaking residues: Characterization of grape skins from red grape pomaces of variety Touriga Nacional
authors Mendes, JAS; Prozil, SO; Evtuguin, DV; Lopes, LPC
nationality International
journal INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS
author keywords Grape skins; Cellulose; Hemicellulose; Cutin; Pectin; Triterpenic acids; Wax
keywords VITIS-VINIFERA L.; BERRY CELL-WALLS; STRUCTURAL-CHARACTERIZATION; BY-PRODUCTS; CHEMICAL-CHARACTERIZATION; ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY; CONDENSED TANNINS; WOOD ADHESIVES; POLYSACCHARIDES; EXTRACTION
abstract The chemical composition and the structural features of macromolecular components from red grape skins (variety Touriga Nacional) have been evaluated. The results of chemical analyses revealed the following contents of the main constituents: cellulose (20.8%), hemicelluloses (12.5%), proteins (18.8%), tannins (13.8%), extractives soluble in dichloromethane (5.0%) and ash (7.8%). Cellulose of grape skins is typical cellulose I polymorph with a degree of crystallinity of 66.1% as assessed by X-ray scattering. The hemicelluloses were analyzed by neutral sugars analysis, methylation analysis and 1D/2D H-1 NMR. The water-soluble compounds (26.4%) are composed mainly of monomeric sugars (glucose and fructose) and a complex mixture of hemicelluloses, the most abundant being pectin and acetylated glucomannan. The major part of structural polysaccharides (cellulose, xylan, xyloglucan, etc.) is embedded in cuticular layer and is poorly accessible to the acid hydrolysis. The cuticular substances contributed to ca. 8.5% of grape skins and their chemical structure has been evaluated by methanolysis. The possibility of comprehensive utilization of grape skins has been discussed. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
publisher ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
issn 0926-6690
year published 2013
volume 43
beginning page 25
ending page 32
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.06.047
web of science category Agricultural Engineering; Agronomy
subject category Agriculture
unique article identifier WOS:000311865000004
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