Grafting Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) from Cork via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) towards Higher Quality of Three-Dimensional (3D) Printed PMMA/Cork-g-PMMA Materials
authors Lacerda, PSS; Gama, N; Freire, CSR; Silvestre, AJD; Barros-Timmons, A
nationality International
journal POLYMERS
author keywords cork; poly(methyl methacrylate); atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP); blends; interface; mechanical properties; 3D-printing
keywords COMPOSITES; SUBERIN
abstract Cork is a unique material and its by-products are attracting an ever-growing interest for preparing new materials in an attempt to extend the outstanding properties of cork toward innovative and high value applications. Yet, the miscibility of cork particles with thermoplastic matrices is not easy due to its low density and surface properties. Here, cork is functionalized with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to yield cork grafted with PMMA chains particles (cork-g-PMMA). Both the ATRP macroinitiator and the cork-g-PMMA obtained are fully characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),C-13 cross-polarized magic-angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (C-13 CP/MAS solid state NMR), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The functionalized cork particles are then blended with commercial PMMA to afford cork-g-PMMA/PMMA. To compare, cork also is mixed with PMMA and the ensuing cork/PMMA sample and its morphology, thermal, and mechanical properties are compared with those of cork-g-PMMA/PMMA and commercial PMMA. The cork surface modification via ATRP of the methyl methacrylate (MMA) yields better dispersion in the matrix. Consequently, a blend with enhanced mechanical performance, higher thermal stability, and a higher melt flow index (MFI) is obtained when compared to the blend prepared using unmodified particles. The similarity of the MFI of cork-g-PMMA/PMMA to that of PMMA suggests good printability. Indeed, a three-dimensional (3D) printed specimen is obtained confirming that grafting using ATRP is a promising route for the preparation of high quality 3D printed products.
publisher MDPI
isbn 2073-4360
year published 2020
volume 12
issue 9
digital object identifier (doi) 10.3390/polym12091867
web of science category Polymer Science
subject category Polymer Science
unique article identifier WOS:000580707600001
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journal analysis (jcr 2019):
journal impact factor 3.426
5 year journal impact factor 3.636
category normalized journal impact factor percentile 82.584
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