The concept of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics has been extensively developed to tackle different aspects of human health and the same principles may be extended to food sciences with two main aims in mind: development of accurate and rapid food quality control methods and investigation of the nutritional effects of selected foods or food components. The current advances along both these avenues are described, reflecting the particular emphasis so far given to liquid foods such as olive oil and fruit juices. Applications to solid foods, still at their infancy, also present significant promise and the corresponding NMR instrumental requirements are discussed. In addition, preliminary results obtained by nutritional metabonomics demonstrate the significant potential of this area, particularly in aiding the well-informed development of new foods or food formulations. In the final part of this article, the possible future developments in the area of food metabonomics are briefly discussed.