Luís António Ferreira Martins Dias Carlos
  Vice Director  
  phone: 234 370 946  
  extension: 23 135  
  department: Physics  
  office: 13.3.12  
  group: 1 - inorganic functional nanomaterials and organic-inorganic hybrids
  line: 1 - information and communication technology
  direct url:  
Scientific Interests

- Light emission of organic-inorganic hybrids, silicates, nanocrystals and metal organic frameworks

- Self-assembly and emergence of complexity in organic/inorganic hybrids

- Applications of organic-inorganic hybrids in solid-state lighting and integrated optics

- Crystal-field, local coordination and energy transfer in lanthanide-based compounds

- Luminescent, magnetic and luminescent/magnetic nanoparticles as new probes for multimodal imaging

Short CV

Luís António Ferreira Martins Dias Carlos (born in Coimbra, Portugal, in 1964, researcher ID: B-2869-2009 and ORCID: 0000-0003-4747-6535) got his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Évora in 1995 working on photoluminescence of polymer electrolytes incorporating lanthanide salts. In 1996 he joined the Department of Physics at the University of Aveiro as Professor Auxiliar. Currently, he is Full Professor. Since 2009 he has been the vice-director of the Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials (CICECO) at Aveiro, Portugal. He is member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (Physics section) since 2011 and was visiting professor of S. Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, S.P. Brazil (1999, 2012 and 2013), and of University of Montpellier 2, France (2008).

Luís Carlos has supervised 10 post-doctoral associates, 14 PhD and 7 master students (presently supervises 3 post-doctoral associates and 3 Ph.D.). He is co-author of 4 (2 international) patents, 310 papers and book chapters with ca. 6650 citations (Hirsch’ index h of 45) and co-guest editor of a special issue of the Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (2010). He has invited speaker in ca. 40 plenary and invited lectures at conferences (total over 400 communications) and the principal researcher of several projects financed by national sources and participant in other European (JOULE, BRITE-EURAM, ECSC steel research program, Marie Curie, NoE, COST, FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN) and Brazilian (INCT-INAMI, NANOBIOTEC) projects.

He is listed at ISI Essential Science Indicators since 2007. He was on the evaluation board for Materials Science Projects of the Portuguese Science Foundation since 2005 and has been regular reviewer of projects for international research agencies from Spain (Ramón y Cajal e Juan de la Cierva programs, Materials Science, 2009), France (ANR, 2010 and 2011), Austria (Austrian Science Fund, 2004), Brazil (CNPq, 2008), People's Republic of China (City University of Hong Kong, 2008, and State Natural Science Award, 2010), Japan (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 2011), Canada (Council of Canadian Academies, 2011), USA (IUPAC, Inorganic Chemistry Division, 2010, U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Basic Energy Sciences, 2013), Poland (National Science Centre, 2013), Italy (MIUR, Italian Ministry for Education, University and Research, 2013) and Finland (Research Council for Natural Sciences and Engineering, Academy of Finland, 2013).

He has been regular reviewer of leading journals in Physics, Chemistry and Materials Science (e.g. Nature NanoTechnology, Nature Communications, Phys. Rev. B, J. Phys. Chem., Angew. Chem., Chem. Comm., J. Am. Chem. Soc., Adv. Mater., Adv. Func. Mater., ACS-Nano, Small, Chem. Mater. and J. Mater. Chem.) and is a member of the editorial advisory board of the Journal of Coordination Chemistry (Taylor Francis), Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (Springer), The Open Physical Chemistry Journal, The Open Condensed Matter Physics Journal, Current Physical Chemistry (Bentham Science Publishers) and SRX Materials Science (Hindawi Publishing Corporation).

In 2004 he received the Portuguese Science Foundation prize for Scientific Excellence.

Present Research Group

Luis Carlos created in 2000 in Aveiro, Portugal, the research group in functional organic-inorganic hybrids (

Maria Rute André (professor/researcher), Lianshe Fu (researcher), Mariela Nolasco, Patrícia Pereira de Lima and Carlos Brites (post-doc) and Mengistie Debasu, Vânia Freitas, Sandra Correia and Sangeetha Balabhadra (PhD students)

The group was pioneer in Europe in the study of organic-inorganic light emitting hybrids (namely embedding lanthanide centers). In the last decade, the group has established an international network devoting to these luminescent hybrid materials with more than 30 research groups in Europe (Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Poland, UK, Nederland), China, Japan, Brazil and Australia. Several Ph.D. students have performed joint thesis abroad, Spain (Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragón, Zaragoza), France (Institut Carles Gerhardt, Montpellier and Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée, Bordeaux) and Brazil (S. Paulo State University). Moreover, foreigner Ph.D. students from laboratories belonging to that cooperation network, from Poland, Brazil, UK, Austria, China, Spain, France and Italy, have performed part of the Ph.D. work in Aveiro (medium term periods, 3-6 months). The current scientific interests of the group include: light emission of functional organic–inorganic hybrids, silicates and nanocrystals; applications of hybrid materials in green photonics (solid-state lighting, luminescent solar concentrators and integrated optics), nanothermometry, self-assembly and emergence of complexity in organic/inorganic hybrids and luminescent/magnetic nanoparticles as new probes for multimodal imaging.

Teaching Activity

Physics and Technology of Polymers

Atomic and Molecular Physics


Structure of Matter

Present projects

LUMINET - European Network on Luminescent Materials”, 316906, FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, Marie Curie Actions Initial Training Networks (ITN). Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universidade de Aveiro, Universitaet Bern, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Universite D'orleans, Osram AG, Fyzikalni Ustav AV CR V.V.I, Siemens AG, Supercis Solar BV, Tartu Ulikool, Universiteit Utrecht, Universitat de Valencia, Universita Degli Studi di Verona, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, Philips Lighting.

Híbridos Orgânicos-inorgânicos do Tipo Silsesquioxanos em Ponte com Ligações via Grupos Tio-ureia Estruturados à Escala Nanométrica para Aplicações na Área da Fotónica Sustentável”, Programa de Acções Universitárias Integradas Luso-Francesas (PAUILF 2013), UA-CICECO/CNRS/Université Montpellier 2, TC-11-13 (2013/2014).

Main present collaborators


João Rocha, Vitor Amaral, Nuno Silva, Filipe Paz, Duarte Ananias, Tito Trindade, Helena Nogueira, Paulo Claro, (Universidade de Aveiro)

Verónica de Zea Bermudez (UTAD, Vila Real)

Paulo André, Luís Alcácer, Jorge Morgado (IST, Lisboa)

Carlos Geraldes (Universidade de Coimbra)


Luiz Liz-Marzán (San Sebastian, Spain)

Michael Wong Chi Man, Jérôme Long, Joulia Larionova, Yannick Guari, Jean-Louis Bantignies, Rozenn Le Parc (Montpellier, France)

Sidney Ribeiro, Edison Pecoraro (UNESP, Araraquara-SP, Brazil)

Hermi Brito (USP, S. Paulo, Brazil)

Oscar Malta, Ricardo Longo, Severino Alves Junior (UFPE, Recife-PE, Brazil)

Fernando Palacio, Angel Míllan (Zaragoza, Spain)

Avelino Corma, Fernando Rey (ITQ, Valencia, Spain)

Marie-Heléne Delville (Bordeaux, France)

Selected Publications

List of Selected Publications

(full record available in


- Light Emission and Optical Applications of Organic-Inorganic Hybrids

“Full Color Phosphors From Amine Functionalized Cross-Linked Hybrids Lacking Metal Activator Ions”, L. D. Carlos, R. A. Sá Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Adv. Func. Mater. 11, 111-115 (2001)

“White-Light Emission of Amine-Functionalized Organic/Inorganic Hybrids: Emitting Centers and Recombination Mechanisms”, L. D. Carlos, R. A. Sá Ferreira, R. N. Pereira, M. Assunção, V. de Zea Bermudez, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 14924–14932 (2004)

“Planar and UV Written Channel Optical Waveguides Prepared With Siloxane-Poly(oxyethylene)-Zirconia Organic/Inorganic Hybrids. Structure and Optical Properties”, C. Molina, R. A. Sá Ferreira, L. D. Carlos, R. R. Gonçalves, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, P. J. Moreira, O. Soppera, A. P. Leite, P. V. S. Marques, V. de Zea Bermudez, J. Mater. Chem. 15, 3937–3945 (2005)

“Sol-Gel Derived Potassium-Based Di-Ureasils for Smart Windows”, S. C. Nunes, V. de Zea Bermudez, M. M. Silva, M. J. Smith, D. Ostrovskii, R. A. Sá Ferreira, L. D. Carlos, J. Rocha, A. Gonçalves, E. Fortunato, J. Mater. Chem. 17, 4239–4248 (2007), EDITORS' CHOICE: HOT PAPER

“Energy Transfer and Emission Quantum Yields of Amine- and Amide-Functionalized Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Lacking Metal Activator Centers”, S. S. Nobre, P. P. Lima, R. A. Sá Ferreira, R. O. Freire, Lianshe Fu, U. Pischel, V. de Zea Bermudez, O. L. Malta, L. D. Carlos, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 3275–3284 (2007)

“Nanoscopic Photoluminescence Memory as a Fingerprint of Complexity in Self-Assembled Alkylene/Siloxane Hybrids”, L. D. Carlos, V. de Zea Bermudez, V. S. Amaral, S. C. Nunes, N. J. O. Silva, R. A. Sá Ferreira, J. Rocha, C. V. Santilli, D. Ostrovskii, Adv. Mater. 19 341–348 (2007)

“Photopaternable Di-Ureasil-Zirconium Oxo-Clusters Organic/Inorganic Hybrids as Cost Effective Integrated Optical Substrates”, D. C. Oliveira, A. G. Macedo, N. J. O. Silva, C. Molina, R. A. Sá Ferreira, P. S. André, K. Dahmouche, V. de Zea Bermudez, Y. Messaddeq, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. D. Carlos, Chem. Mater. 20, 3696–3705 (2008)

“Efficient Spectrally Dynamic Blue-to-green Emission of Bipyridine-based Bridged Silsesquioxanes for Solid-state Lighting”, S. S. Nobre, X. Cattoën, R. A. S. Ferreira, M. Wong Chi Man, L. D. Carlos, Phys. Status Solidi RRL 3-4, 55–57 (2010)

“Hierarchically Constrained Dynamics and Emergence of Complex Behaviour in Nano-Hybrids”, L. D. Carlos, J. M. Pacheco, R. A. Sá Ferreira, A. L. L. Videira, Small 6, 386-390 (2010)

“A Luminescent Molecular Thermometer for Long-Term Absolute Temperature Measurements at the Nanoscale”, C. D. S. Brites, P. P. Lima, N. J. O. Silva, A. Millán, V. S. Amaral, F. Palacio, L. D. Carlos, Adv. Mater. 22, 4499–4504 (2010)

“Progress on the Photonic Properties of Lanthanide-based Organic-inorganic Hybrids” L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, B. Julián-López, P. Escribano, Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 536–549 (2011)


- Crystal-field, Local Coordination and Energy Transfer in Lanthanide-Based Compounds

“White Light Emission of Eu3+-Based Hybrid Xerogels”, L. D. Carlos, R.A. Sá Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, Celso Molina, Luciano A. Bueno and Sidney J.L. Ribeiro, Phys. Rev. B 60, 10042–10053 (1999)

“Full Colour Phosphors From Eu(III)-Based Organosilicates”, L. D. Carlos, Y. Messaddeq, H. F. Brito, R. A. Sá Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Adv. Mater. 12, 594–598 (2000)

“Fine-Tuning of the Chromaticity of the Emission Color of Organic/Inorganic Hybrids Co-Doped With Eu(III), Tb(III) and Tm(III)”, L. D. Carlos, R. A. Sá Ferreira, J. P. Rainho, V. de Zea Bermudez, Adv. Func. Mater. 12, 819–823 (2002)

“Overlap Polarizability of a Chemical Bond: A Scale of Covalency and Application to Lanthanide Compounds”, O. L. Malta, H. J. Batista, L. D. Carlos, Chem. Phys. 282 (1), 21–30 (2002)

“A Covalent Fraction Model for Lanthanide Compounds”, L. D. Carlos, O. L. Malta, R. Q. Albuquerque, Chem. Phys. Lett. 415, 238–242 (2005)

“Highly Luminescent Tris(β-Diketonate) Europium(III) Complexes Immobilized in a Functionalized Mesoporous Sílica”, S. Gago, J. A. Fernandes, J. P. Rainho, R. A. Sá Ferreira, M. Pillinger, A. A. Valente, T. M. Santos, L. D. Carlos, P. J. A. Ribeiro-Claro, I. S. Gonçalves, Chem. Mater. 17, 5077–5084 (2005)

“Spectroscopic Study of UV-Photostable Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Incorporating a New Eu3+ b-Diketonate Complex”, P. P. Lima, R. A. Sá Ferreira, R. O. Freire, F. A. Almeida Paz, Lianshe Fu, S. Alves Jr., L. D. Carlos, O. L. Malta, Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 735–746 (2006)

“The Role of Structuring on the Photoluminescence of Eu(III)-Doped Lamellar Bridged Silsesquioxanes Self-Templated Through an Hydrogen Bonding Array”, S. S. Nobre, C. D. S. Brites, R. A. S. Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, C. Carcel, J. J. E. Moreau, J. Rocha, M. Wong Chi Man, L. D. Carlos, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 4172–4182 (2008)

“Ligands–Assisted Rational Design and Supramolecular Tectonics Towards Highly Luminescent Eu3+–Containing Organic–Inorganic Hybrids”, P. P. Lima, F. A. Almeida Paz, R. A. Sá Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, L. D. Carlos, Chem. Mater. 21, 5099 – 5111 (2009)

“Lanthanide-Containing Light-Emitting Organic-Inorganic Hybrids: A Bet on the Future”, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, V. de Zea Bermudez, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Adv. Mater. 21, 509–534 (2009)     


- Luminescent Silicates, Nanocrystals and Metal Organic Frameworks

“The First Microporous Framework Cerium Silicate”, J. Rocha, Paula Ferreira, L.D. Carlos, A. Ferreira, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 39, 3276–3279 (2000).

“Novel Microporous Framework Europium and Terbium Silicates”, D. Ananias, A. Ferreira, J. Rocha, Paula Ferreira, J. P. Rainho, C. Morais, L. D. Carlos,  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123 (24), 5735–5742 (2001)

”Multifunctional Sodium Lanthanide Silicates: From X-ray Phosphors to Blue Emitters and Infrared S-band Amplifiers”, D. Ananias, A. Ferreira, L. D. Carlos, J. Rocha, Adv. Mater. 15, 980–985 (2003)

Novel Microporous Lanthanide Silicates With Tobermorite-Like Structure”, A. Ferreira, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, C. M. Morais, J. Rocha, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 14573–14579 (2003)

“Photoluminescent Layered Lanthanide Silicates”, D. Ananias,M. Kostova, F. A. Almeida Paz, A. Ferreira, L. D. Carlos, J. Klinowski, J. Rocha, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126, 10410–10417 (2004)

“Optical Detection of Solid-State Chiral Structures with Unpolarised Light and in the Absence of External Fields”, D. Ananias, F. A. Almeida Paz, L. D. Carlos, C. F. G. C. Geraldes, J. Rocha, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 7938–7942 (2006)

“Metal-Organic Nanoporous Structures with Simultaneous Anisotropic Photoluminescence and Magnetic Properties, and their use as Sensors”, B. V. Harbuzaru, A. Corma, F. Rey, P. Atienzar, J. L. Jordá, H. Garcia, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, J. Rocha, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 1080–1083 (2008), EDITORS' CHOICE: HOT PAPER

“Molecule-Like Eu3+-Dimers Embedded in a Extended System Exhibit Unique Photoluminescence Properties”, D. Ananias, M. Kostova, F. A. Almeida Paz, A N. C. Neto, R. T. De Moura Jr., O. L. Malta, L. D. Carlos, J. Rocha, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 8620–8626 (2009)

“Miniaturized Linear pH Sensor Based on a Highly Photoluminescent Self-Assembled Eu3+-Metal Organic Framework”, B. V. Harbuzaru, A. Corma, F. Rey, J. L. Jordá, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, J. Rocha, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 6476–6479 (2009)


“Effects of Phonon Confinement on Anomalous Thermalization, Energy Transfer and Upconversion in Ln3+-Doped Gd2O3 Nanotubes”, A. G. Macedo, R. A. Sá Ferreira, D. Ananias, M. S. Reis, V. S. Amaral, L. D. Carlos, J. Rocha, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 624-634  (2010)

“Multifunctional Luminescent Lanthanides-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks”, J. Rocha, L. D. Carlos, F. A. Almeida Paz, D. Ananias, Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 926–940 (2011)

“(Gd,Yb,Tb)PO4 Up-Conversion Nanocrystals for Bimodal Luminescence-MR Imaging”, M. L. Debasu, S. Pinho, C. Geraldes, D. Ananias, L. D. Carlos, J. Rocha, Nanoscale 4, 5154–5162 (2012)


- Luminescent, Magnetic and Luminescent/Magnetic Nanoparticles as New Probes for Multimodal Imaging

“Novel Lanthanide Luminescent Materials Based on Complexes of 3-Hydroxypicolinic Acid and Silica Nanoparticles”, P. C. R. Soares-Santos, H. I. S. Nogueira, V. Félix, M. G. B. Drew, R. A. Sá Ferreira, L. D. Carlos, T. Trindade, Chem. Mater. 15, 100-108 (2003)

Comment on “Thermoinduced Magnetization in Nanoparticles of Antiferromagnetic Materials”, N. J. O. Silva, L. D. Carlos, V. S. Amaral, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 39707–39707 (2005)

“Evidence of Random Magnetic Anisotropy in Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles Based on Analysis of Statistical Distributions”, N. J. O. Silva, V. S. Amaral, L. D. Carlos, B. Rodríguez-González, L. M. Liz-Marzán, T. S. Berquó, S. K. Banerjee, V. de Zea Bermudez, A. Millan, F. Palacio, Phys. Rev. B 77, 134426–6 (2008)

“A Luminescent and Magnetic Cyano-Bridged Tb3+-Mo5+ Coordination Polymer: Toward Multifunctional Materials”, E. Chelebaeva, J. Larionova, Y. Guari, R. A. Sá Ferreira, L. D. Carlos, F. A. Almeida Paz, A. Trifonov, C. Guérin, Inorg. Chem. 47, 775–777 (2008)

“Fine Tuning of the Relaxometry of γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles by Tweaking the Thickness of the Silica Coating”, S. L. C. Pinho, G. A. Pereira, P. Voisin, J. Kassem, S. Mornet, J. A. Peters, L. D. Carlos, C. F.G.C. Geraldes, J. Rocha, M.-H. Delville, ACS Nano 4, 5339–5349 (2010)

“Lanthanide-DTPA Grafted Silica Nanoparticles as Bimodal-Imaging Contrast Agents”, S. L. C. Pinho, H. Faneca, C. F. G. C. Geraldes, M.-H. Delville, L. D. Carlos, J. Rocha, Biomaterials 33, 925–935 (2012)

“Bifunctional Luminescent Single-Ion Magnet: Towards Correlation Between Luminescence Studies and Magnetic Slow Relaxation Processes”, J. Long, R. Vallat, R. A. S. Ferreira, L. D. Carlos, F. A. Almeida Paz, Y. Guari, J. Larionova, “Chem. Comm., 48, 9974–9976 (2012)

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