Tito Trindade
  Associate Professor with Aggregation  
  phone: + 351 234 370 726  
  extension: 23 546  
  e-mail: tito@ua.pt  
  department: Chemistry  
  office: 15.3.20  
  research line: L1 - Information and Communication Technology
  research group: G1 - Inorganic Functional Nanomaterials and Organic-Inorganic Hybrids
isi web of knowledgeSM search factor: Trindade, T  
  direct url: http://www.ciceco.ua.pt/TitoTrindade  
Short CV

2008- present Associate Professor with "Agregação" (Universidade de Aveiro)
2005-2008 Associate Professor (Univ. Aveiro)
1997-2005 Assistant Professor (Univ. Aveiro)
1993-96 PhD at London University (Imperial College)
1992-93 Assistant teacher, Master in Materials Science and Engineering (Univ. Aveiro)
1991-92 Trainning assistant teacher (Univ. Aveiro)
1988-90 Research grantee (Univ. Aveiro)
1986-87 Internship in Molecular Physical-Chemistry (Univ. de Coimbra)
1983-87 Licenciatura in Chemistry (FCTUC, University of Coimbra)

Tito Trindade is Associate Professor in the Chemistry Department of the University of Aveiro (Portugal) and member of the Laboratory Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials (CICECO) where he coordinates Research Line 1: “Nano- and Micro-Structured Materials for Information and Communication Technology”.Tito Trindade has been appointed for several working groups and positions related to the implementation of Nanotechnology activities which include National Contact Point for the FP6 program, delegate of COST Action D19 (2000-2006) and Director of the Doctoral Program in Nanosciences and Nanotechnology of the University of Aveiro. He was appointed to academic management duties such as Head of Department Deputy (1997-1999) and Scientific Coordinator (2007-2009) of the Department of Chemistry of the University of Aveiro. He was elected President of the Inorganic Chemistry Division of the Portuguese Chemical Society for the period 2007-2009. He has been appointed member of research assessment panels for FCT grants and was also invited to evaluate international projects. He has been strongly committed to diverse pedagogical activities namely by lecturing diverse undergraduate and postgraduate courses including Nanochemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Pigments, Physical-Chemistry Foundations, and General Chemistry.

Tito Trindade published about 170 SCI scientific publications, with ca. 3729 citations, and 3 patents. He co-authored the scientific publication with University of Aveiro affiliation, having the highest number of citations until date. He co-edited the book “Nanocomposite Particles for Bioapplications- Materials and Biointerfaces” (Pan Stanford, 2011). He has given several invited talks and presented more than 100 communications (oral and posters) at scientific conferences/seminars and in events for non-specialized audiences. He has been actively involved in team-work in several research projects both with national and international funding. Tito is currently member of the International Advisory Board of the European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (Wiley-VCH).

Following his PhD at Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine in London (1996), he returned to the University of Aveiro where he has implemented a research line with a special focus on the synthesis, characterization and surface modification of nanomaterials. Since then, much of the work has been in developing new routes of synthesis and surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles of diverse materials, which include semiconductors, glasses, metals and metal oxides. His research laboratory (nanoLAB@dq-ciceco) benefits from a number of enthusiastic young researchers and has developed a special expertise on the use of inorganic nanoparticles to produce composite materials with potential interest for bio-applications, environmental remediation processes and chemical analysis, and energy sustainable technologies. Examples include i) materials comprising a polymer matrix incorporating functional inorganic particles that can be prepared in the form of films, colloids, fibers and powders; ii) chemical functionalized core/shell particles either for optical biolabelling or water purification using magnetic removal techniques; iii) hybrid materials based on carbon nanostructures for photodriven applications. The nanoLAB@dq-ciceco research team applies on a routine basis a number of instrumental techniques via an integrated approach that includes the use of vibrational spectroscopy, potentiometry, UV/VIS spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopies, among many others. Other research interests include the chemistry of inorganic pigments and the synthesis of inorganic-organic hybrid materials, which in several aspects follow the main objectives described above. Since the very beginning, the nanoLAB aims to be a creative atelier mainly founded in Chemistry, Materials Science and Nanotechnology, envisaging the promotion of scientific knowledge dissemination by using good practices.


Research ID: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/A-8030-2010

ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5456-7243

Linkedin: pt.linkedin.com/pub/tito-trindade/41/4a0/700/


Scientific Interests


This research aims to develop and improve chemical methods for the synthesis of inorganic nanocrystals of a variety of materials. Illustrative examples comprise the chemical synthesis of quantum dots, plasmonic metal nanoparticles and superparamagnetic iron oxides. These nanomaterials can be prepared as pure phases or as multi-phase materials which in turn are used as fillers in polymer matrices in order to fabricate nanocomposites. Thus chemical aspects have been particularly relevant in our research on nanoengineering composite particles, in particular, the surface chemistry of these materials has been investigated aiming their use as fillers in natural and synthetic polymer matrices. The nanocomposites have been evaluated for diverse applications such as in the fabrication of antimicrobial surfaces, drug delivery and new platforms for SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) analytical detection.  

Silver and PtBA nanocomposites as new platforms for SERS analysis

see for example:

R. J. B. Pinto, M. C. Neves, C. P. Neto, T. Trindade “Growth and chemical stability of copper nanostructures on cellulosic fibers”, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2013, 31, 5043-5049.

A. C. Estrada, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, T. Trindade, “Photothermally enhanced drug release by κ-carrageenan hydrogels reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes“, RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 10828-10836.

S. Fateixa, A. V. Girão, H. I. S. Nogueira, T. Trindade, “Polymer based silver nanocomposites as versatile solid film and aqueous emulsion SERS substrates”, J. Mater. Chem. 2011, 21, 15629-15636.

R. J. B. Pinto, P. A. A. P. Marques, C. P. Neto, T. Trindade, S. Daina, P. Sadocco, “Antibacterial activity of nanocomposites of silver and bacterial or vegetable cellulosic fibers“, Acta Biomaterialia 2009, 5, 2279-2289.

P. A. A. P. Marques, H. I. S. Nogueira, R. J. B. Pinto, C. P. Neto, T. Trindade, “Silver-bacterial cellulosic sponges as active SERS substrates”, J. Raman Spect., 2008, 39, 439-443.

A. S. Pereira, P. Rauwel, M. S. Reis, N. J. O. Silva, A. Barros-Timmons, T. Trindade, “Polymer encapsulation effects on the magnetism of EuS nanocrystals”, J. Mater. Chem., 2008, 18, 4572–4578.

O. C. Monteiro, H. I. S. Nogueira, M. Motevalli, T. Trindade “Use of alkyldithiocarbamato complexes of bismuth (III) for the preparation of nano- and micro-sized Bi2S3particles and the X-ray crystal structures of [Bi{S2CN(CH3)(C6H13)}3and [Bi{S2CN(CH3)C6H13)}3(C12H8N2)]”, Chem. Mater.,2001, 13, 2103-2111.

 Cover Book

"Nanocomposite particles for bio-applications: materials and biointerfaces", T. Trindade, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva (editors), Pan Stanford Publishing, Singapore, 2011.



Nanoparticles are now well established as potential new vectors for a number of applications in medicine (Nanomedicine). We have been interested in the synthesis, chemical functionalization and characterization of fluorescent and/or magnetic inorganic nanoparticles for in vitro bioapplications, such as optical biolabelling and magnetic bioseparation. In this context, we have carried out research that merges important concepts and procedures from colloidal science and coordination chemistry. An illustrative example is the chemical strategy developed in our laboratories based on a sol-gel method that result into fluorescent silica nanoparticles containing lanthanide complexes. Lanthanide complexes, namely those of Tb(III) and Eu(III), are characterized by well defined and narrow emission bands, relatively long emission lifetimes and large Stoke shifts. These properties make these compounds very interesting as functional units in nanoparticles that have potential as tags for time-gated luminescence bio-detection. More recently, we have extended this research to the fabrication of hybrid nanosilicas containing other functional units (e.g. corrole complexes) aiming their potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Methods of surface functionalization have been important aspects in developing this research, not only due to their challenging nature but also because of the relevance of interfaces in nanoparticles applications, namely when contacting with biological systems. In this context, diverse surface modification routes have been investigated that include the growth of amorphous silica shells by using conventional sol-gel method and, microemulsions and multiple emulsions as nanoreactors. Two main routes for the chemical functionalization of the silica nanoparticles have been employed: i) the covalent grafting of organic molecules with specific functional groups and ii) the electrostatic assembly of polyelectrolytes that can be also chemically functionalized. For example, 1D ferromagnetic nanostructures such as nickel nanowires have been surface modified with polyelectrolytes carrying organic fluorophore molecules, thus leading to multimodal (fluorescent/magnetic) bioprobes that can be of interest for the separation and manipulation (e.g. magnetic tweezers) of cells using in vitro protocols.



see for example 

P. C. Pinheiro, C. T. Sousa, J. P. Araújo, A. J. Guiomar, Tito Trindade, Functionalization of nickel nanowires with a fluorophore aiming at new probes for multimodal bioanalysis”, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2013.07.065.

J. F. B. Barata, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, M. G. P. M. S. Neves, J. A. S. Cavaleiro, T. Trindade, “Corrole-silica hybrid particles: synthesis and effects on singlet oxygen generation”, RSC Adv., 2013, 3, 274-280.

C. M. Granadeiro, R. A. S. Ferreira, P. C. R. Soares-Santos, L. D. Carlos, T. Trindade, H. I. S. Nogueira, “Lanthanopolyoxotungstates in silica nanoparticles: multi-wavelength photoluminescent core/shell materials “, J. Mater. Chem. 2010, 20, 3313-3318.

K. O. Iwu, P. C. R. Soares-Santos, H. I. S. Nogueira, L. D. Carlos, T. Trindade,“Nanoencapsulation of Luminescent 3-Hydroxypicolinate Lanthanide Complexes“, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113, 7567-7573.

A. S. Pereira, M. Peres, M. J. Soares, E. Alves, A. Neves, T. Monteiro, T. Trindade, “Synthesis, surface modification and optical properties of Tb(III)-doped ZnO nanocrystals”, Nanotechnology,2006, 17, 834-839.

P. C. R. Soares-Santos, H. I. S. Nogueira, R. A. Sá-Ferreira, V. M. S. Félix, M. Drew, L. D. Carlos, T. Trindade, “Novel lanthanide luminescent materials based on complexes of 3-hydroxypicolinic acid and silica nanoparticles”, Chem. Mater, 2003, 15, 100-108.



Water is the most treasured chemical compound for humankind. The scarcity of drinking water or the contamination of water sources in some regions of the world are perceived as serious threats, not only to the affected populations but also to global peace. In general, water pollution has been regarded as a priority problem for which the scientific community has been called for innovative solutions. This requires an integrated set of approaches from diverse scientific fields besides global policies. This research aims to contribute for this environmental issue by carrying out interdisciplinary research aiming the development of new water monitoring and purification technologies. As such, we have developed new sorbents for the magnetic uptake of water pollutants such as metal species, organic dyes and pharmaceuticals. These materials comprise a magnetic core (e.g. Fe3O4) that can be regarded as a new class of sorbents with wide applicability and selectivity by judicious tailoring of the particles’ surface chemistry. Thus core/shell particles made of magnetite coated with siliceous shells functionalized with thiolate moieties have shown high efficiency for the magnetic removal of aqueous mercury ions. On the other hand, nanocomposite particles of superparamagnetic magnetite coated with a biopolymer have shown potential for the magnetic removal of organic dyes such as methylene blue. The ultimate goal of this research is to create conditions for the application of this nanotechnology in the magnetic removal of diverse pollutants from water in real contexts.

see for example

D. S. Tavares, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, C. B. Lopes, N. J. O. Silva, V. S. Amaral, J. Rocha, E. Pereira, T. Trindade, Efficient sorbents based on magnetite coated with siliceous hybrid shells for removal of mercury ions”, J. Mater. Chem. A. 2013, 1, 8134-8143.

A. M. Salgueiro, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, A. V. Girão, P. C. Pinheiro, T. Trindade, “Unusual dye absorption behavior of k-carrageenan coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles”, Chem. Eng. J., 2013, DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2013.06.015

P. Figueira, C. B. Lopes, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, E. Pereira, A. C. Duarte, T. Trindade, T. Water Res., 2011, 45, 5773.

P. I. Girginova, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, C. B. Lopes, P. Figueira, M. Otero, V. S. Amaral, E. Pereira, T. Trindade, “Silica coated magnetite particles for magnetic removal of Hg2+from water” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2010, 345, 234-240.



A single molecule precursor allows the production of a semiconductor in a one step route by providing both elements in the same precursor compound. Earlier work has shown the potential of this strategy for the CVD of thin films of a range of semiconductors and metals. The use of coordination compounds as single molecule precursors to produce colloidal inorganic nanocrystals has emerged in the nineties as an alternative route to produce such nanomaterials. A paradigmatic example is the use of metal alkyldithiocarbamates or alkyldiselenocarbamates to produce colloidal nanocrystals of metal sulfides or metal selenides, respectively. We have extended the use of this type of precursors for the surface modification of materials of variable dimensionality and chemical composition. In particular, we have been interested in growing metal chalcogenide nanophases at the materials’ surfaces by promoting the solution phase thermolysis of the precursor in situ. Thus highly photoluminescent CdSe quantum dots can be capped with ZnS shells by using a zinc(II) dithiocarbamate as single-molecule precursor. This one-step route can lead to other materials whose surfaces are modified with nanophases that confer specific functionalities of interest in energy and biological applications. An illustrative example is the growth of metal sulfides onto SiO2 or TiO2 suspensions aiming their use in photocatalytic processes or as antimicrobial materials. Research is in progress for the application of this strategy to carbon nanostructures.


see for example

S. Fateixa, M. C. Neves, A. Almeida, J. Oliveira, T. Trindade, “Anti-fungal activity of SiO2/Ag2S nanocomposites against Aspergillus niger”, Colloids Surfaces B 2009, 74, 304-308.

M. C. Neves, O. C. Monteiro, R. Hempelmann, A M. S. Silva, T. Trindade, “From Single-Molecule Precursors to Coupled Ag2S/TiO2Nanocomposites”, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2008, 4380-4386.

M. C. Neves, M. A. Martins, P. C. R. Soares-Santos, P. Rauwel, R. A. Sá Ferreira, T. Monteiro, L. D. Carlos, T. Trindade, “Photoluminescent, transparent and flexible di-ureasil hybrids containing CdSe/ZnS quantum dots”, Nanotechnology, 2008, 19, 155601.

O. C. Monteiro, A. C. C. Esteves, T. Trindade, “The synthesis of SiO2@CdS nanocomposites using single-molecule precursors”, Chem. Mater., 2002, 14, 2900-2904.



With this research topic we aim to exploit chemical routes that involve known inorganic pigments and their modifications, enabling innovative and competitive forms for their use. These approaches somehow mimic procedures that have been used by Nature in producing functional pigments using common materials such as the interference pigments found in the wings of butterflies. Hence, a special focus has been the development of chemical methods that enable control of the optical and morphological properties of particulates that can be arranged in a variety of substrates. An illustrative example is the chemical bath deposition method that we have developed in order to coat a variety of substrates (e.g. glasses, natural fibers, polymer beads) with BiVO4 pigments. The color palette of this pigment can be further extended by doping the host monoclinic structure with foreign ions such as Ce(III). Also, the development of inorganic–organic hybrids (e.g. Fe2O3/cellulose) has been exploited leading to pigments that besides the coloristic properties might confer other properties such as improved mechanical and thermal behavior.

see for example

M. C. Neves, C. S. R. Freire, B. F. O. Costa, C. P. Neto, R. A. S. Ferreira, T. Trindade, “Cellulose/iron oxide hybrids as multifunctional pigments in thermoplastic starch based materials”, Cellulose, 2013, 20, 861-871.

M. A. B. Barata, M. C. Neves, C. P. Neto, T. Trindade, “Growth of BiVO4particles in cellulosic fibres by in situ reaction”, Dyes and Pigments, 2005, 65, 125-127.

M. C. Neves, T. Trindade, “Chemical Bath Deposition of BiVO4, Thin Solid Films, 2002, 406, 93-97.



Studies on the coordination chemistry of d- and f-metals has been of great interest due to their relevance for some of the topics already mentioned above. Besides fundamental knowledge that emerges from these studies, this research also aims: i) the synthesis of metal complexes that can be regarded as functional units for nanomaterials (e.g. fluorescent silicas); ii) the functionalization of nanomaterials’ surfaces with coordinating groups with chemical affinity for specific metal species (e.g. surface modification of eco-nanomagnets). Additionally, there are collaborations with other CICECO researchers in the synthesis and structural characterization of a variety of metal-organic frameworks. 

see for example

F. Shi, L. Cunha-Silva, R. A. Sá Ferreira, L. Mafra, T. Trindade, L. D. Carlos, F. A. Almeida Paz, J. Rocha, “Interconvertable Modular Microporous Framework and Layered Lanthanide(III)-Etidronic Acid Coordination Polymers”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 150-167.

P. I. Girginova, F. A. Almeida Paz, P. C. R. Soares-Santos, R. A. Sá Ferreira, L. D. Carlos, V. S. Amaral, J. Klinowski, H. I. S. Nogueira, T. Trindade, “Synthesis, Characterisation and Luminescent Properties of Lanthanide-Organic Polymers with Picolinic and Glutaric Acids”, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem, 2007, 4238–4246.

F. Shi, L. Cunha-Silva, M. J. Hardie, T. Trindade, F. A. Almeida Paz, J. Rocha, “Heterodimetallic Germanium(IV) Complex Structures with Transition Metals”, Inorg. Chem., 2007, 46, 6502-6515.

F. Shi, F. A. A. Paz; P. Girginova; H. I. S. Nogueira, J. Rocha; V. Amaral; J. Klinowski; T. Trindade,A novel cobalt(II)-molybdenum(V) phosphate organic-inorganic hybrid polymer”, J. Solid State Chem., 2006, 179, 1497-1505.

P. I. Girginova, F. A. Almeida-Paz, H. I. S. Nogueira, N. J. O. Silva, V. S. Amaral, J. Klinowski, T. Trindade, “Synthesis, Characterisation and Magnetic Properties of Cobalt(II) Complexes with 3- Hydroxypicolinic Acid (HpicOH): [Co(picOH)2(H2O)2] and mer-[N(CH3)4][Co(picOH)3]·H2O”, Polyhedron, 2005, 24, 563.


Main present collaborators

Ana Luísa Daniel da Silva; Ana Barros-Timmons; Ana Gil; Angela Cunha; António Jorge Guiomar; Armando Duarte; Armando Silvestre; Benilde Costa; Brian Goodfellow; Carlos Pascoal Neto; Carmen Freire; Célia Sousa; Clara Costa; Eduarda Pereira; Fanian Shi; Filipe Paz; Gerardo Goya; Giovanni Baldi; Graça Neves; Helena Nogueira; Jacek Klinowski; João Coutinho; João Labrincha; João Pedro Araújo; João Pedro Conde; João Rocha; João Tomé; José Cavaleiro; Luis Carlos; Maria Adelaide Almeida; Nuno João Silva; Olinda Monteiro; Patrizia Sadocco; Paul O'Brien; Paula Alexandrina Marques; Rosa Fernandes; Rute André; Sérgio Pereira; Sílvia Rocha; Sónia Morais; Teresa Monteiro; Vítor Amaral.




Teaching Activity
  • Nanochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Inorganic chemistry
  • Inorganic pigments
  • General chemistry
  • Physical Chemistry Foundations
  • Chemical synthesis
  • Frontiers in Inorganic Chemistry
Ongoing projects


PTDC/CTM-NAN/120668/2010: "Nanomaterials for the uptake of pollutant metal ions: efficiency, selectivity and recyclability", FCT funding for UA: 111 140 €, (2012-2014

NEURONANO-"Magnetotransduction: development of magnetic nanoparticle-viral vector complexes for therapeutic gene delivery in the senile brain", EULANEST international research network, FCT/EU funding for UA: 39 900€; (2011-2013). (Local coordinator)

Team member:

PTDC/AGR-PRO/4091/2012: “Bioavailability and trophic transfer of metal-based engineered nanoparticles in terrestrial foodchains”, FCT funding for UA: 98 504 € (2013-2015)

IUPAC/0001/2009: “Polymer encapsulation of anisotropic inorganic particles by RAFT-mediated emulsion polymerization”, FCT funding for UA: 95 000 € (2011-2014).

PTDC/BIA-BEC/103716/2008: “NANOkA: NANO Particles: standardization of methods for environmental risk Assessment”, FCT funding for UA: 185 072 € (2010-2013).

SO2S Network for Initial Training: “The Singlet Oxygen Strategy: sustainable oxidation procedures for applications in material science, synthesis, wastewater treatment, diagnostics and therapeutics” (2013-2016).

Selected Publications

10 recent SCI publications

D. S. Tavares, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, C. B. Lopes, N. J. O. Silva, V. S. Amaral, J. Rocha, E. Pereira, T. Trindade, Efficient sorbents based on magnetite coated with siliceous hybrid shells for removal of mercury ions”, J. Mater. Chem. A. 2013, 1, 8134-8143.

 F. L. Sousa, R. Bustamante, A. Millán, F. Palacio, T. Trindade, N. J. O. Silva, “Magnetically responsive dry fluids”, Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 7229-7233.

 A. C. Estrada, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, T. Trindade, “Photothermally enhanced drug release by κ-carrageenan hydrogels reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes“, RSC Adv. 2013, 3, 10828-10836.

 S. Fateixa, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, N. Jordão, A. Barros-Timmons, T. Trindade, “Effect of colloidal silver and gold nanoparticles on the thermal behavior of poly(t-butyl acrylate) composites“, Colloids and Surfaces A, 2013, 436, 231-236.

 M. C. Neves, C. S. R. Freire, B. F. O. Costa, C. P. Neto, R. A. S. Ferreira, T. Trindade, “Cellulose/iron oxide hybrids as multifunctional pigments in thermoplastic starch based materials”, Cellulose, 2013, 20, 861-871.

R. J. B. Pinto, A. Almeida, S. C. M. Fernandes, C. S. R. Freire, A. J. D. Silvestre, C. P. Neto, T. Trindade, “Antifungal activity of transparent nanocomposite thin films of pullulan and silver against Aspergillus niger”, Colloids and Surfaces B, 2013, 103, 143-148.

 P. C. Pinheiro, S. Fateixa, H. I. S. Nogueira, T. Trindade, “SERS study on adenine using a Ag/poly(t-butylacrylate) nanocomposite”, Spectrochimica Acta A, 2013, 101, 36-39.

A. M. Salgueiro, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, S. Fateixa, T. Trindade, “k-Carrageenan hydrogel nanocomposites with release behavior mediated by morphological distinct Au nanofillers”, Carbohydr. Polymers, 2013, 91, 100-109.

 J. F. B. Barata, A. L. Daniel-da-Silva, M. G. P. M. S. Neves, J. A. S. Cavaleiro, T. Trindade, “Corrole-silica hybrid particles: synthesis and effects on singlet oxygen generation”, RSC Adv., 2013, 3, 274-280.

R. J. B. Pinto, M. C. Neves, C. P. Neto, T. Trindade “Growth and chemical stability of copper nanostructures on cellulosic fibers”, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., 2013, 31, 5043-5049.

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ongoing scientific supervisions