Jorge Ribeiro Frade
  Full professor  
  phone: 234 370 254  
  extension: 22 923  
  departament: Materials and Ceramic Engineering  
  research line: L2 - Energy and Industrial Applications
  research group: G3 - Materials for Energy and Functional Surfaces
isi web of knowledgeSM search factor: Frade, J  
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Short cv

Jorge R. Frade is Full Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Aveiro (since 1996). Graduated in chemical engineering (Coimbra, 1978), obtained his PhD from the University of Sheffield, UK (1983), and DSc/(Agregação) from the University of Aveiro (1995).


Jorge published over about 260 SCI SCI papers in international SCI journals, with close to 4000 citations (h-index 32), and gave many talks at international conferences, including about 20 invited talks in the last 10 years.


Jorge received the prize for Scientific Excellence from the Portuguese Science Foundation (2004).


Jorge regularly participates in assessments of projects, individual grants (posdoc and PhD) and doctoral programs. He acts as a regular referee for a variety of international journals in materials science, electrochemistry, chemistry and related areas (about 30 articles per year).

present research group


Jorge Frade has supervised about 30 post-docs and Ph.D. students.


At present his group includes:

Post-Doc – Yuliya Ivanova;

Ph.D. Students – Nuno Vitorino (co-supervisor: João Abrantes), Nuno Ferreira (co-supervisors Florinda Costa and Andrei Kovalevsky), Filipe Monteiro (co-supervisor Andrei Kovalevsky), Ana Brandão (co-supervisor Duncan Fagg), Isabel Antunes (co-supervisor (Duncan Fagg); Amin Davarspanan (co-supervisor Aleksey Yaremchenko); Javier Macias Montiel (co-supervisor Aleksey Yaremchenko); Mariana Sanches (co-supervision D.Hotza-UFSC)


present projects


Coordinated 15 main projects (7 international) and several other international collaborations


Present projects

  • IERO-Iron production by electrochemical reduction of its oxide for high CO2 mitigation, Project RFSR-CT-2010-00002, European project
  • THERMICS- Cellular PCM-based composites with enhanced thermal conduction and shape stabilization, Project PTDC/CTM-ENE/2073/2012, FCT
  • ORIEL-“Lanthanum silicate thin films with preferential orientation as electrolytes for IT-SOFC”, Project PTDC/CTM-CER/118933/2010, FCT
Selected publications

Materials for SOFC & related technologies

D. Pérez-Coll, P. Núñez, J.R. Frade, Effect Of Samarium-Content On Onset Of Minor P-Type Conductivity In Ceria-Based Electrolytes, J. Power Sources, 227 (2013) 145-152

D.Perez-Coll, A.Aguadero, P.Nunez, J.R.Frade, “Mixed transport properties of Ce1-xSmxO2-x/2 in fuel cell operating conditions, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35 (2010 11448-11455

T.Carvalho, E.Antunes, J.Calado, F.M.Figueiredo, J.R. Frade, “Lanthanum oxide as a scavenging agent for zirconia electrolytes”, Solid State Ionics, 225 (2012) 484-7

Coll DP, Nunez P, Ruiz-Morales JC, Martinez JP, Frade JR, Re-examination of bulk and grain boundary conductivities of Ce1-xGdxO2-d ceramics, Electrochimica Acta, 52 (2007) 2001-8

Tsipis EV, Kharton VV, Frade JR, Electrochemical behavior of mixed-conducting oxide cathodes in contact with apatite-type La10Si5AlO26.5 electrolyte, Electrochimica Acta 52 (13): 4428-4435 MAR 20 2007

D.P.Coll, D.M.Lopez, P.Nunez, S.Piñol, J.R.Frade, Grain boundary conductivity of Ce0.8Ln0.2O2-d ceramics (Ln=Y,La,Gd,Sm) with and without Co-doping, Electrochimica Acta, 51 (2006) 6463-9

D.P.Coll, P.Nuñez, J.C.C.Abrantes, D.P.Fagg, V.V.Kharton, J.R.Frade, Effects of firing conditions and addition of Co on bulk and grain boundary properties of CGO, Solid State Ionics, 176 (2005) 2799-2805

Kharton VV, Tsipis EV, Yaremchenko AA, Frade JR, “Surface-limited oxygen transport and electrode properties of La2Ni0.8Cu0.2O4+delta”, Solid State Ionics, 166 (2004) 327-37.

G.C.Mather, F.M.Figueiredo, J.R.Jurado, J.R.Frade, “Synthesis and characterisation of cermet anodes for SOFCs with a proton-conducting ceramic phase”, Solid State Ionics, 162 (2003) 115-120

D.Perez-Coll, P.Nuñez, J.R.Frade, J.C.C.Abrantes, “Conductivity of CGO and CSO ceramics obtained from freeze dried precursors”, Electrochimica Acta, 48 (2003) 1551-7

D.P. Fagg, J.C.C. Abrantes, D. Perez-Coll, P. Nunez, V.V. Kharton and J.R. Frade, The effect of cobalt oxide sintering aid on electronic transport in Ce0.80Gd0.20O2-d electrolyte, Electrochimica Acta, 48 (2003) 1023-9

A.Ringuedé, D.Bronine, J.R.Frade, “Assessment of Ni/YSZ anodes prepared by combustion synthesis”, Solid State Ionics, 146 (2002) 219-24

A.Ringuedé, D.Bronine, J.R.Frade, “Alternative Ni1-xCox/YSZ anodes for solid oxide fuel cells”, Electrochimica Acta, 48 (2002) 437-42

V.V.Kharton, F.M.Figueiredo, L.Navarro, E.N.Naumovich, A.V.Kovalevsky, A.A.Yarenchenko, A.P.Viskup, A.Carneiro, F.M.B.Marques, J.R.Frade, “Ceria based materials for solid oxide fuel cells”, J. Mat. Sci., 36 (2001) 1105-17

A.Ringuedé, J.A.Labrincha, J.R.Frade, “A combustion synthesis method to obtain alternative cermet materials for SOFC anodes”, Solid State Ionics, 141/2 (2001) 549-57

D.P.Fagg, V.V.Kharton, A.V.Kovslevsky, A.P.Viskup, E.N.Naumovich, J.R.Frade, “The stability and mixed conductivity in La and Fe doped SrTiO3 in the search for potential SOFC anode materials”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 21 (2001) 1831-5

F.M.Figueiredo, J.R.Frade, F.M.B.Marques, “Performance of composite LaCoO3+La2(Zr,Y)2O7 cathodes” , Solid State Ionics., 135 (2000) 463-7

J.A.Labrincha, F.M.B.Marques, J.R.Frade, "La2Zr2O7 Formed at Ceramic Electrode/YSZ Contacts", J. Mat. Sci. 28 (1993) 3809


Membranes for oxygen separation & syngas

A.A.Yaremchenko, C.Buysse, V.Middelkoop, F.Snijkers, A.Buekenhoudt, J.R.Frade, A.V.Kovalevsky. Impact of sulphur contamination on the oxygen transport mechanism through Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-d: relevant issues in the development of capillary and hollow fibre membrane geometry. J. Membrane. Sci., 428 (2013) 123

A.Kovalevsky, A.Yaremchenko, V.Kolotygin, A.Shaula, V.Kharton, F.Snijkers, A.Buekenhoudt J.R.Frade, E.Naumovich, Processing and oxygen permeation studies of asymmetric multilayer Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-d membranes, J Membrane. Sci., 380 (2011) 68

D.P.Fagg, S.Garcia-Martin, V.V.Kharton, J.R.Frade Transport properties of fluorite-type Ce0.8Pr0.2O2-d: Optimization via the use of cobalt oxide sintering aid", Chem. Mater, 21 (2009) 381

Fagg DP, Shaula AL, Kharton VV, Frade JR, High oxygen permeability in fluorite-type Ce0.8Pr0.2O2-d via the use of sintering aids, J Membrane Sci, 299 (2007) 1

Kharton VV, Kovalevsky AV, Avdeev M, Tsipis EV, Patrakeev MV, Yaremchenko AA, Naumovich EN, Frade JR, Chemically induced expansion of La2NiO4+d-based materials, Chem. Mat. 19 (2007) 2027

A.V.Kovalevsky, V.V.Kharton, F.Maxim, A.L.Shaula and J.R.Frade, Processing and characterization of La0.5Sr0.5FeO3-supported Sr1-xFe(Al)O3-SrAl2O4 composite membranes, J.Membrane Sci., 278(2006)162

V.V. Kharton, A.L. Shaula, F.M.M. Snijkers, J.F.C. Cooymans, J.J. Luyten, A.A. Yaremchenko, A.A. Valente, E.V. Tsipis, J.R. Frade, F.M.B. Marques and J. Rocha, Processing, stability and oxygen permeability of Sr(Fe,Al)O3-based ceramic membranes, J. Membrane Sci., 252 (2005) 215

V.V. Kharton, A.A. Yaremchenko, A.A. Valente, V.A. Sobyanin, V.D. Belyaev, G.L. Semin, S.A. Veniaminov, E.V. Tsipis, A.L. Shaula, J.R. Frade and J. Rocha, Methane oxidation over Fe-, Co-, Ni- and V-containing mixed conductors, Solid State Ionics, 2005, vol. 176, pp. 781

Kharton VV, Yaremchenko AA, Tsipis EV, Valente AA, Patrakeev MV, Shaula AL, Frade JR, Rocha, “Characterization of mixed-conducting La2Ni0.9Co0.1O4+delta membranes for dry methane oxidation”, Applied Catalysis A- General, 261 (2004), 25

F.M.Figueiredo, V.V.Kharton, A.P.Viskup, J.R.Frade, “Surface enhanced oxygen permeation in CaTi1-xFexO3-d ceramic membranes”, J. Membrane Sci., 236 (2004) 73

V.V.Kharton, A.A.Yaremchenko, A.L. Shaula, M.V.Patrakeev, E.N.Naumovich, D.I.Loginovich, J.R.Frade, F.M.B.Marques, “Transport properties and stability of Ni-containing mixed conductors with perovskite- and K2NiF4-type structure”, J. Solid State Chem., 177 (2004) 26

A.A. Yaremchenko, V.V. Kharton, M.V. Patrakeev and  J.R. Frade, p-type electronic conductivity, oxygen permeability and stability of La2Ni0.9Co0.1O4+d, J. Mat. Chem., 13 (2003) 1136.

V.V.Kharton, A.V.Kovalevsky, E.V.Tsipis, A.P.Viskup, E.N.Naumovich, J.R.Jurado and J.R.Frade, Mixed conductivity and stability of A-site-deficient Sr(Fe,Ti)O3-d perovskites, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 2002, vol.7, pp.30.

V.V.Kharton, A.P.Viskup, A.V.Kovalevsky, F.M.Figueiredo, J.R.Jurado, A.A.Yaremchenko, E.N.Naumovich, J.R.Frade, “Surface limited ionic transport in perovskites Sr0.97(Ti,Fe,Mg)O3-d”, J. Mat. Chem., 10 (2000) 1161

J.R.Jurado, F.M.Figueiredo, B.Gharbage, J.R.Frade, Electrochemical permeability of Sr0.97(Ti,Fe)3-d materials", Solid State Ionics, 118 (1999) 89


Solid state electrochemical methods

S.I.R.Costa, M.Li, J.R.Frade, D.C.Sinclair, Modulus spectroscopy of CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics: clues to the internal barrier layer capacitance mechanism, RSC Advances, 3 (2013) 7030

A.L. Ferreira, A.L. Horovistiz, J.C.C. Abrantes, D. Pérez-Coll, P. Núñez,  J.R. Frade, De-convolution of bulk and interfacial contributions based on impedance spectroscopy with external load resistance”, Mat. Res. Bull., 44 (2009) 884

J.R.Frade, V.V.Kharton, A.A. Yaremchenko, E.V.Tsipis, Applicability of emf measurements under external load resistance conditions for ion transport number determination, J. Sol. State Electrochem., 10 (2006) 96

V.V.Kharton, A.V.Kovalevsky, A.V.Viskup, F.M.Figueiredo, J.R.Frade, A.A.Yaremchenko, E.N.Naumovich, “Faradaic efficiency and oxygen permeability of Sr0.97Ti1-x FexO3-d perovskite”, Solid State Ionics, 128 (2000) 117

B.Gharbage, F.M.B.Marques, J.R.Frade, "Electrolyte changes by point contact electrodes on Sr(Zr,Dy)O3-d“, Solid State Ionics, 136/7 (2000) 933

J.R.Jurado, M.T.Colomer, J.R.Frade, “Caracterization of Sr0.97Ti1-x FexO3-d by impedance spectroscopy. Part I: Materiais with low Fe contents”, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 83 (2000) 2715

J.C.C.Abrantes, J.A.Labrincha, J.R.Frade, “Applicability of the brick layer model to describe the grain boundary properties of strontium titanate ceramics”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 20 (2000) 1603

J.C.C.Abrantes, J.A.Labrincha, J.R.Frade, “Representations of impedance spectra of ceramics: Part I. Simulated study cases”, Mat. Res. Bull., 35 (2000) 965

J.C.C.Abrantes, J.A.Labrincha, J.R.Frade, “Representations of impedance spectra of ceramics: Part II. Spectra of polycrystalline SrTiO3”, Mat. Res. Bull., 35 (2000) 977

J.C.C.Abrantes, J.A.Labrincha, J.R.Frade, “An alternative representation of impedance spectra of ceramics”, Mat. Res. Bull, 35 (2000) 741

J.R.Frade, "Theoretical behaviour of concentration cells based on ABO3 perovskite materials with protonic and oxygen ion conduction", Solid State Ionics, 78 (1995) 87

R.M.C.Marques, F.M.B.Marques, J.R.Frade, "Characterization of mixed conductors by dc techniques. Part I: Theoretical solutions", Solid State Ionics, 73 (1994) 15


Solid state kinetics, thermodynamics & synthesis

J.F.Monteiro, A.A.L.Ferreira, I.Antunes, D.P.Fagg, J.R.Frade,“Thermodynamic restrictions on mechanosynthesis of strontium titanate, J. Sol. State Chem. 185 (2012) 143

Antunes I, Brandao A, Figueiredo FM, Frade JR, Gracio J, Fagg DP. Mechanosynthesis of nanopowders of the proton-conducting electrolyte material Ba(Zr, Y)O3-d, J Solid State Chem. 182 (2009) 2149

A.Brandão,  J.F.Monteiro,  A.V. Kovalevsky,  D.P. Fagg,  V.V.Kharton,  J.R.Frade, “Guidelines for improving resistance to CO2 of materials for solid state electrochemical systems”, Solid State Ionics, 192 (2011) 16

J.R.Frade, V.V.Kharton, A.Yaremchenko, E.Naumovich, “Methane to syngas conversion: Part I: Equilibrium conditions and stability requirements of membrane materials”, J. Power Sources, 130 (2004) 77

J.R.Frade, V.V.Kharton, D.Marrero Lopez, P.Nunez, J.C.C.Abrantes, “Kinetics of phase transformation for constant heating rate occurring close to the thermodynamic transition”, Thermochimica Acta, 435 (2005) 84

E.V.Tsipis, V.V.Kharton, I.A.Bashmakov, E.N.Naumovich, J.R.Frade, “Cellulose precursor synthesis of nanocrystalline Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-d for SOFC anodes”, J. Solid State Electrochem., 8 (2004) 674

A.Ringuedé, J.R.Frade, J.A.Labrincha, “Combustion synthesis of zirconia-based cermet powders”, Ionics, 6 (2000) 273

A.L.Oliveira, M.Oliveira, R.N.Correia, M.H.F.V.Fernandes, J.R.Frade, "Crystallization of whitlockite from a glass in the system CaO.P2O5.SiO2.MgO, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 81 (1998) 3270

J.R.Frade, "Crystallization with variable temperature: Corrections for the activation energy", J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 81 (1998) 2654

D.A.Fumo, J.R.Jurado, A.M.Segadães, J.R.Frade, "Combustion synthesis of iron substituted strontium titanate perovskites", Mat. Res. Bull., 32 (1997) 1459

J.R.Frade, M.Cable, "Numerical solutions for mixed control of powder reactions for spherical, cylindrical, or planar particles", J.Amer.Ceram. Soc., 78 (1995) 90.

J.R.Frade, M.Cable, "Reexamination of the basic theoretical Model for the Kinetics of solid state reactions", J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 75 (1992) 1949


Materials for waste heat conversion & storage (thermoelectrics, PCM,…)

N.Vitorino, J.C.C.Abrantes, J.R.Frade, Gelled Graphite/Gelatin Composites For Latent Heat Cold Storage, Applied Energy, 104 (2013) 890

N.Vitorino, J.C.C.Abrantes, J.R.Frade, PCM/graphite composites with improved thermal and electrical response, Mat.Lett., 92 (2013) 100

N.Vitorino, J.C.C.Abrantes, J.R.Frade, Cellular ceramics processed by paraffin emulsified suspensions with collagen consolidation, Mat. Lett. 98 (2013) 120

N.Vitorino, J.C.C.Abrantes, J.R.Frade, “Numerical solutions for mixed controlled solidification of phase change materials” Int. J. Heat Mass Trans., 53 (2010) 5335

A.V. Kovalevsky, A.A. Yaremchenko, S. Populoh, A. Weidenkaff, J.R. Frade, Enhancement of thermoelectric performance in strontium titanate by praseodymium additions, J. Appl. Phys. 113 (2013) 053704.


Materials & catalysts for carbon lean technologies

J.F. Monteiro, J.Waerenborgh, A.Kovalevsky, A.Yaremchenko, J.R.Frade, Synthesis of Sr0.9K0.1FeO3d electrocatalysts by mechanical activation, J. Solid State Chem., 198 (2013) 169

N.M. Ferreira, A. Kovalsky, M.A. Valente, M.F. Costa, J. Frade, Magnetite/Hematite core/shell fibres grown by laser floating zone method, Appl. Surf. Sci., 278 (2013) 203

AV Kovalevsky, EN Naumovich, AA Yaremchenko, JR Frade, High-temperature conductivity, stability and redox properties of Fe3-xAlxO4 spinel-type materials, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 32 (2012) 3255

A.Yaremchenko, A.Kovalevsky, E.Naumovich, V.Kharton, J.Frade, High temperature electrical properties of magnesiowustite Mg1-xFexO and spinels Fe3-x-yMgxCryO4 ceramics, Solid State Ionics, 192 (2011) 252

Poznyak SK, Kharton VV, Frade JR, Yaremchenko AA, Tsipis, EV, Yakovlev SO, Marozau IP, “Behaviour of (La,Sr)CoO3 and La2NiO4-based ceramic anodes in alkaline media: Compositional and microstructural factors” J. Sol. State Electrochem., 12 (2008) 15

Main collaborations

Main collaborations & joint publications in recent years

In Portugal:

CICECO: J. Abrantes, A. Kovalevsky, A.Yaremchenko, V.Kharton, F. Figueiredo, 

Other research units & institutions: D. Fagg (Aveiro), F. Costa (Aveiro), J.Wearemborgh (Lisbon); J. Calado (INNOVNANO)




P.Nuñez (La Laguna-Spain); D.Perez-Coll, Glenn Mather & S.Garcia-Martin (Madrid-Spain); J. Irvine (St.Andrews-UK); D. Sinclair (Sheffield, UK);A. Weidenkaff (Zurich, Switzerland); F.Snijkers (Vito, Belgium); C.Argirusis (Clausthal, Germany); A.Shlyakhtina (Moscow, Russia); V.Sadykov (Novosibirsk, Russia); D. Hotza (St. Catarina-Brasil), Carlos Bergman (Porto Alegre, Brasil)

Main scientific interests
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Research Interests

1) High temperature electrochemical applications

Envisaged applications are solid oxide fuel cells, mixed conducting membranes for oxygen separation or partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, gas sensors, materials for high temperature electrolysis, oxygen pumping, etc. This involves research on electrolytes, electrodes, electrocatalysts and interconnectors, their properties and performance, including transport properties, electrocatalytic activity, thermal and chemical compatibility between different cell materials.


1.1 Solid state electrochemical systems (SOFC, etc.l:  materials and concepts

            A wide variety of materials has been studied during the last decades, including zirconias, cerias, perovskytes (e.g. LaGaO3), rare-earth pyrochlores (e.g. Ln2Ti2O7), silicates (La10-x(Si,Al)6O26+d,…), LaMOX, etc. The main emphasis has been on materials with enhanced properties for operation at lower temperatures, alternative less expensive materials or materials, and materials with enhanced durability and tolerant to contamination or harsher conditions.

            Novel anodes materials are studied for intermediate-temperature electrochemical systems (IT SOFCs) and as alternative anodes for direct conversion of hydrocarbons without previous reforming. One attempts to develop anodes with enhanced electrocatalytic activity, microstructural stability, redox stability and sulphur tolerance. Actual anodes concepts include alternative cermets, and redox tolerant ceramic conductors such as (Sr,Ln)TiO3 or (Sr,La)VO3.

            Work on cathode materials is focused on their transport and electrocatalytic properties for operation at lower temperatures, and their thermochemical compatibility with other SOFC components. Relevant materials include perovskytes such as Sr(Co,Fe)O3 and (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3, layered materials such as La2Ni0.8Cu0.2O4+d and other RP phases. Suitable methods are being used to obtain nanocrystalline powders of these cathode materials.

            New guidelines for work in the near future also include interconnecting materials, with emphasis on spinels for redox protection of metallic substrates and to act as barriers for Cr interdiffusion 


1.2 Mixed conducting materials for oxygen separation or partial oxidation of hydrocarbons

            Dense ceramic membranes with mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conductivity has been studied for application in oxygen separation or conversion of hydrocarbons to syngas. Though activities in the recent past included studies of a very wide variety of materials with different structe types, this is now mainly directed to overcoming some of the stricter limitations for successful application such as the complex thermochemical expansion of most of these materials and long term degradation of mixed conductivity or surface exchange.


2 Solid state kinetics, thermodynamics and synthesis

            The main interests correspond to a variety of powder preparation methods such as mechanochemical synthesis, combustion synthesis, freeze drying, cellulose precursor replication,  …).

            Ceramic processing is being studied as a guideline for microstructural and structural design, for their impact on properties. This includes sintering under unusual conditions (reducing atmospheres, hot-pressing,…) and less common firing schedules (e.g. 2-step sintering). Processing of highly porous cellular ceramics is developed for porous components of energy conversion systems (electrodes or electrocatalysts) and for their potential to extent research activities to a variety of other technologies.

            Thermodynamic analysis is used to study interactions in multicomponents systems (e.g. SOFC), to assess redox stability or reactivity with gases, and thermodynamic restrictions on solid state reactions.

            Other research activities include mathematical modelling of phase transformations and reactions in the solid state, for non-isothermal conditions or on combining steps of isothermal conditions and variable temperature. These models are used to extract kinetic information from thermal analyses (DTA, TGA, DSC, dilatometry) and transient response obtained by other methods (e.g. electrical conductivity, electrochemical titration).



3 Materials for heat conversion and storage (PCM, thermoelectrics,…)

            Ongoing interests are related to other technologies for renwable energies, with emphasis on conversion or storage of natural heat sources (e.g. solar) or waste heat, by thermoelectric applications and phase change materials for heat or cold storage. Work on oxide thermoelectrics seeks conversion of heat sources combining higher temperatures and other harsher conditions (e.g. reducing). Research on heat or cold storage is mainly directed to enhance the thermal response for fast charge and/or discharge; this is mostly based on designed organization of highly conducting inclusions.



4 Materials & catalysts for carbon lean technologies

            Other research projects are related to the development of alternative technologies to replace CO2-intensive high temperature industrial processes, with emphasis on less common technologies of direct electrochemical reduction of metal oxides and pyroelectrolysis. The group is extending the activities to electrochemical processing as alternative route for metallic alloys, cermets or composites.



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ongoing scientific supervisions