New dioxadiaza- and trioxadiaza-macrocycles containing one dibenzofuran unit with two amino pendant arms: synthesis, protonation and complexation studies


New dioxadiaza- and trioxadiaza-macrocycles containing one rigid dibenzofuran unit (DBF) and N-(2-aminoethyl) pendant arms were synthesized, N,N'-bis(2-aminoethyl)-[17]( DBF) N2O2 (L-1) and N,N'-bis(2-aminoethyl)-[22](DBF)N2O3 (L-2), respectively. The binding properties of both macrocycles to metal ions and structural studies of their metal complexes were carried out. The protonation constants of both compounds and the stability constants of their complexes with Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ were determined at 298.2 K, in aqueous solutions, and at ionic strength 0.10 mol dm(-3) in KNO3. Mononuclear complexes with both ligands were formed, and dinuclear complexes were only found for L-2. The thermodynamic binding affinities of the metal complexes of L-2 are lower than those of L-1 as expected, but the Pb2+ complexes of both macrocycles exhibit close stability constant values. On the other hand, the binding affinities of Cd2+ and Pb2+ for L-1 are very high, when compared to those of Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+. These interesting properties were explained by the presence of the rigid DBF moiety in the backbone of the macrocycle and to the special match between the macrocyclic cavity size and the studied larger metal ions. To elucidate the adopted structures of complexes in solution, the nickel(II) and copper( II) complexes with both ligands were further studied by UV-vis-MR spectroscopy in DMSO-H2O 1 : 1 (v/v) solution. The copper(II) complexes were also studied by EPR spectroscopy in the same mixture of solvents. The crystal structure of the copper complex of L-1 was also determined. The copper(II) displays an octahedral geometry, the four nitrogen atoms forming the equatorial plane and two oxygen atoms, one from the DBF unit and the other one from the ether oxygen, in axial positions. One of the ether oxygens of the macrocycle is out of the coordination sphere. Our results led us to suggest that this geometry is also adopted by the Co2+ to Zn2+ complexes, and only the larger Cd2+ and Pb2+ manage to form complexes with the involvement of all the oxygen atoms of the macrocyclic backbone.






Li, F; Li, L; Delgado, R; Drew, MGB; Felix, V

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