Characterization of LiMn2O4 cathodes by electrochemical strain microscopy


Electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM) is a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) method in which the local electrodiffusion is probed via application of AC voltage to the SPM tip and registration of resulting electrochemical strain. Here, we implemented ESM to measure local strain in bulk LiMn2O4 cathodes of a commercial Li-battery in different states of charge to investigate distribution of Li-ion mobility and concentration. Ramped AC ESM imaging and voltage spectroscopy were used to find the most reliable regime of measurements allowing separating and diminishing different contributions to ESM. This is not a trivial task due to complex geometry of the sample and various obstacles resulting in less predictable contributions of different origins into ESM response: electrostatic tip-surface interactions, charge injection, electrostriction, and flexoelectricity. Understanding and control of these contributions is an important step towards quantitative interpretation of ESM data. (C) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.




Alikin, DO; Ievlev, AV; Luchkin, SY; Turygin, AP; Shur, VY; Kalinin, SV; Kholkin, AL

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