Toxicity of engineered micro- and nanomaterials with antifouling properties to the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryonic stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus


Antifouling booster biocides are chemicals used in protective paints to tackle the adhesion of fouling organisms to maritime artificial structures. However, they are also known to exert toxic effects on non target organisms. Recent research developments have highlighted the potential use of engineered micro/nanomaterials (EMNMs) as carriers of antifouling booster biocides in order to control their release and to reduce the harmful effects on living biota. In the present study, we sought to assess the toxicity of two commercially-available booster biocides: (zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT)); three unloaded engineered micro/nanomaterials (EMNMs); layered double hydroxides (LDH), silica nano capsules (SiNC), polyurea microcapsules (PU);, and six novel EMNMs (loaded with each of the two biocides). The exposure tests were conducted on the larval stage (nauplii) of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and on two embryonic developmental stages of the European purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The findings indicate that the unloaded LDH and PU (i.e. both biocide-free EMNMs) have non/low toxic effects on both species. The unloaded SiNC, in contrast, exerted a mild toxic effect on the A. salina nauplii and P. lividus embryos. The free biocides presented different toxicity values, with ZnPT being more toxic than CuPT in the P. lividus assays. LDH-based pyrithiones demonstrated lower toxicity compared to the free forms of the state-of-the-art compounds, and constitute good candidates in terms of their antifouling efficacy. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.




Environmental Sciences & Ecology


Gutner-Hoch, E; Martins, R; Maia, F; Oliveira, T; Shpigel, M; Weis, M; Tedim, J; Benayahu, Y

nossos autores


We would like to thank the Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences in Eilat (IUI) for logistic support and kind hospitality. We acknowledge M. Weis for assistance, Z. V. Wexler for digital editing, N. Paz for editorial assistance, and D. Ben-Ezra from the National Center for Mariculture of the Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research (IOLR) for the sea urchin supply. The collection of animals complied with a permit issued by the Israel Nature and National Parks Protection Authority. This study was supported by the EU FP7 Project Low-toxic cost-efficient environment-friendly antifouling materials (OCEAN for Tomorrow) under Grant Agreement No. 612717 and in part by the Israel Cohen Chair in Environmental Zoology to YB. RM is funded by national funds (OE), through FCT -Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia, I.P., in the scope of the framework contract provided in clauses 4, 5 and 6 of article 23, of the Decree-Law 57/2016, of August 29, changed by Law 57/2017, of July 19. RM benefitted from a Post-Doctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/93225/2013) awarded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT), funded by the Human Potential Operational Programme (POPH) through QREN and European Social Fund (ESF) and by national funds through the Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science. Thanks are also due for the financial support to CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (UID/AMB/50017/2019) and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials (UID/CTM/50011/2019) to FCT/MCTES through national funds.

Partilhe este projeto

Publicações similares

Usamos cookies para atividades de marketing e para lhe oferecer uma melhor experiência de navegação. Ao clicar em “Aceitar Cookies” você concorda com nossa política de cookies. Leia sobre como usamos cookies clicando em "Política de Privacidade e Cookies".