Biochemical and histopathological impacts of rutile and anatase (TiO2 forms) in Mytilus galloprovincialis


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles have been widely used in various industrial applications and consumer products. Due to their large production and use, they will eventually enter into aquatic environments. Once in the aquatic environment TiO2 particles may interact with the organisms and induce toxic effects. Since the most common crystallographic forms of TiO2 are rutile and anatase, the present study evaluated the effect of these two forms of TiO2 particles in Mytilus galloprovincialis. For this, mussels were exposed to different concentrations of rutile and anatase particles (0, 5, 50, 100 mu g/L) for twenty-eight days. Ti concentrations, histopathological alterations and biochemical effects were evaluated. Similar Ti concentrations were found in mussels exposed to rutile and anatase, with the highest values in mussels exposed to the highest exposure concentration. Histopathological results demonstrated that both forms of TiO2 induced alterations on gills and digestive glands along the increasing exposure gradient. Biochemical markers showed that mussels exposed to rutile maintained their metabolic capacity (assessed by the activity of the Electron Transport System, ETS), while anatase increased the metabolism of mussels. Mussels exposed to rutile increased their detoxifying defences which, due to the low tested concentrations, were sufficient to avoid cellular damage. On the other hand, mussels exposed to anatase suffered cellular damages despite the increase of the antioxidant defences which may be related to the high ETS activity. Both rutile and anatase particles were toxic to M. galloprovincialis, being the highest oxidative stress exerted by the crystalline form anatase. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.




Environmental Sciences & Ecology


Leite, C; Coppola, F; Monteiro, R; Russo, T; Polese, G; Lourenco, MAO; Silva, MRF; Ferreira, P; Soares, AMVM; Freitas, R; Pereira, E

nossos autores


Carla Leite benefited from BSc grant under the project ASARI-SAFE (NSFC/0001/2016) funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT). Francesca Coppola, and Rui Monteiro benefited from PhD grants (SFRH/BD/118582/2016 and SFRH/BD/108535/2015, respectively), given by the National Funds through the FCT, supported by FSE and Programa Operacional Capital Humano (POCH) e da Uniao Europeia. Paula Ferreira acknowledge the grant IF/00300/2015. Rosa Freitas was funded by national funds (OE), through FCT, in the scope of the framework contract foreseen in the numbers 4, 5 and 6 of the article 23, of the Decree-Law 57/2016, of August 29, changed by Law 57/2017, of July 19. This work was also financially supported by the project BISPECIAl: BIvalveS under Polluted Environment and ClImate chAnge PTDC/CTA-AMB/28425/2017 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028425) funded by FEDER, through COMPETE2020 -Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalizacao (POCI), and by national funds (OE), through FCT/MCTES. Thanks are due for the financial support to CESAM (UID/AMB/50017/2019), CICECO (UID/CTM/50011/2019), CIIMAR (UID/Multi/04423/2019) and Smart Green Homes Project POCI-01-0247-FEDER-007678, financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and when appropriate co-financed by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement.

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