Gemini Surfactant as a Template Agent for the Synthesis of More Eco-Friendly Silica Nanocapsules
authors Kaczerewska, O; Sousa, I; Martins, R; Figueiredo, J; Loureiro, S; Tedim, J
nationality International
author keywords cationic surfactants; microemulsion; mesoporous silica; encapsulation; ecotoxicity
abstract Silica mesoporous nanocapsules are a class of smart engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) applied in several fields. Recent studies have highlighted that they can exert deleterious effects into marine organisms, attributed to the use of the toxic cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) during the synthesis of ENMs. The present study reports the successful synthesis and characterization of novel gemini surfactant-based silica nanocapsules. The gemini surfactant 1,4-bis-[N-(1-dodecyl)-N,N-dimethylammoniummethyl]benzene dibromide (QSB2-12) was chosen as a more environmentally-friendly replacement of CTAB. Nanocapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and N-2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. Short-term exposure effects of new ENMs were evaluated in four marine species (Nannochloropsis gaditana, Tetraselmis chuii and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and the microcrustacean (Artemia salina). The replacement of the commercial cationic surfactant by the gemini surfactant does not change the structure nor the environmental behaviour in seawater of the newly synthesised silica nanocontainers. Additionally, it is demonstrated that using gemini surfactants can reduce the toxicity of novel silica nanocapsules towards the tested marine species. As a result, environmentally-friendly ENMs can be obtained based on a safe-by-design approach, thereby fitting the concept of Green Chemistry.
publisher MDPI
isbn 2076-3417
year published 2020
volume 10
issue 22
digital object identifier (doi) 10.3390/app10228085
web of science category Chemistry, Multidisciplinary; Engineering, Multidisciplinary; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; Physics, Applied
subject category Chemistry; Engineering; Materials Science; Physics
unique article identifier WOS:000594896500001