Polyamide 6/modified pine bark particle composites for additive manufacturing
authors Gama, N; Ferreira, A; Barros-Timmons, A; Evtuguin, D
nationality International
abstract Aiming the sustainability of 3D-printed objects, in this study, pine bark particles were used as filler reinforcement for polyamide 6 (PA). In order to enhance the performance of the produced composites, the biomass was chemically modified via a two-step procedure. In the first step, the OH groups present on the particles surface were reacted with ethylenediamine, which were subsequently reacted with a polyol. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), C-13 solid-state cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)CCPMAS NMR) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the chemical modification of biomass. The masterbatch was prepared from modified pine bark particles and polymeric matrix (PA) being processed into test specimens. The ensuing composites revealed a significant increase in Young's modulus and maximum stress. Thus, the introduction of 10% modified biomass increases the Young's modulus by 87% and the maximum stress by 15%. Furthermore, analyzing the glass transition temperature (Tg), melting flow index and thermogravimetric analysis results, the modified biomass ensuing composites proved to be suitable for 3D printing. This was attributed to better compatibility between chemically modified biomass and matrix and, further, easier processing.
publisher SPRINGER
issn 0022-2461
isbn 1573-4803
year published 2021
volume 56
issue 34
beginning page 19093
ending page 19105
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1007/s10853-021-06443-7
web of science category 13
subject category Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
unique article identifier WOS:000687107600007
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