Insights into the Chloride versus Bromide Effect on the Formation of Urea-Quaternary Ammonium Eutectic Solvents


The intermolecular interactions of urea and quaternary ammonium salts relevant to their thermodynamic nonideality were here investigated by measuring the solid-liquid equilibria of their binary mixtures. The experimental data revealed that the anion transfer between the quaternary ammonium salt and urea increases with increasing alkyl chain lengths, leading to negative deviations from ideality in the urea-rich side for [N4,4,4,4]- based systems. However, the use of bromides instead of chlorides dampens the nonideality of urea because of larger size and lower electronegativity of the anion. The behavior of urea when mixed with ChCl or ChBr was found to be remarkably different, indicating that its nonideality in the ChCl/urea eutectic solvent is governed by urea-chloride rather than hydroxyethyl-urea interactions. The conclusions presented highlight the contribution of charge delocalization in the formation of deep eutectic solvents of type III.






Martins, MAR; Abranches, DO; Silva, LP; Pinho, SP; Coutinho, JAP

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This work was developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020, UIDP/50011/2020, and LA/P/0006/2020, and CIMO- Mountain Research Center, UIDB/00690/2020, financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC (PIDDAC) . L.P.S. acknowledges FCT for her Ph.D. grant (SFRH/BD/135976/2018) . The NMR spectrometers are a part of the National NMR Network (PTNMR) and are partially supported by the Infrastructure Project No. 022161 (cofinanced by FEDER through COMPETE 2020, POCI and PORL, and FCT through PIDDAC) .

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