Metal-Organic Frameworks based on Phosphonate Linkers


During the last few decades, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), also known as Coordination Polymers, have attracted worldwide research attentions due to their incremented fascinating architectures and unique properties. These multidimensional materials have been potential applications in distinct areas: gas storage and separation, ion exchange, catalysis, magnetism, in optical sensors, among several others. The MOF research group at the University of Aveiro has prepared MOFs from the combination of phosphonate organic primary building units (PBUs) with, mainly, lanthanides. This thesis documents the last findings in this area involving the synthesis of multidimensional MOFs based on four di- or tripodal phosphonates ligands. The organic PBUs were designed and prepared by selecting and optimizing the best reaction conditions and synthetic routes. The self-assembly between phosphonate PBUs and rare-earths cations led to the formation of several 1D, 2D and 3D families of isotypical MOFs. The preparation of these materials was achieved by using distinct synthetic approaches: hydro(solvo)thermal, microwave- and ultrasound-assisted, one-pot and ionothermal synthesis. The selection of the organic PBUs showed to have an important role in the final architectures: while flexible phosphonate ligands afforded 1D, 2D and dense 3D structures, a large and rigid organic PBU isolated a porous 3D MOF. The crystal structure of these materials was successfully unveiled by powder or single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All multidimensional MOFs were characterized by standard solid-state techniques (FT-IR, electron microscopy (SEM and EDS), solid-state NMR, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis). Some MOF materials exhibited remarkable thermal stability and robustness up to ca. 400 ºC. The intrinsic properties of some MOFs were investigated. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the selected organic PBUs are suitable sensitizers of Tb3+ leading to the isolation of intense green-emitting materials. The suppression of the O−H quenchers by deuteration or dehydration processes improves substantially the photoluminescence of the optically-active Eu3+-based materials. Some MOF materials exhibited high heterogeneous catalytic activity and excellent regioselectivity in the ring-opening reaction of styrene oxide (PhEtO) with methanol (100% conversion of PhEtO at 55 ºC for 30 min). The porous MOF material was employed in gas separation processes. This compound showed the ability to separate propane over propylene. The ionexchanged form of this material (containing K+ cations into its network) exhibited higher affinity for CO2 being capable to separate acetylene over this environment non-friendly gas.




Sérgio Manuel Felipe Vilela

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Filipe Alexandre Almeida Paz; João Paulo Costa Tomé


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