Lignins as Components of Macromolecular Materials


This chapter provides the information on usage of lignin, as such or after modification, as an additive to other polymers, a blend component, and a macromonomer. After a brief description of the use of lignin as a filler in different polymeric vehicles, such as inks and paints, the use of this renewable macromolecule as a co-reactant in phenol–formaldehyde, and urea–formaldehyde resins, is described. Then, different systems aiming at preparing poly(urethane)s, polyesters, epoxy resins, and resins based on lignins and furans are reviewed, and those giving the most interesting materials discussed in some depth. The modification of lignin with alkenyl groups and the polymerization of the ensuing macromonomers are also critically assessed. The following topic is the preparation of lignin-based carbon fibers and activated carbons and their use as reinforcing elements in composites and selective adsorbents, respectively. Finally, the preparation of aromatic monomers from lignin and the interest of their polymers is discussed.


Naceur BM, Alessandro G

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