Chapter 29: Piezoresponse Force Microscopy for Bioelectromechanics


Electromechanical coupling, including piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, and flexoelectricity, is present in a wide range of organic materials. Such phenomena have been postulated to have a functional role in biological systems, where e.g. conformational changes in proteins can be electrically activated. Investigating the electromechanical properties of biological materials at the micro to nanoscale is therefore crucial for understanding the possible biofunctionality of piezoelectricity and for exploiting such properties in, e.g. sensing, actuating or energy harvesting applications. This chapter provides an overview of the use of piezoresponse force microscopy in the investigation of biomaterials to further our understanding of bioelectromechanics.


Kate Ryan, Sabine M. Neumayer, Denise Denning, Jill Guyonnet, Ensieh Hosseini, Arwa Bazaid, Andrei L. Kholkin, and Brian J. Rodriguez

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