The Contribution of Light Microscopy to Study Male Reprotoxicity of Cadmium


Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals widespread in industrial and environmental settings and a well-recognized endocrine disruptor agent. Cadmium compounds induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, which accounts for degenerative changes in several tissues and organs, including testis. The goal of this chapter is to describe the main effects of cadmium on male reproductive functions with focus on morphological changes in testis and spermatozoa. Several recent studies conducted on laboratory animals are listed to confirm the deleterious effects of cadmium on male reproductive function.


Pereira ML, Coelho J, Tavares R, Fonseca HMC, Silva V, Gonçalves PP, Garcia e Costa F.

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