Ion-exchange equilibria and kinetics


The accurate modelling of equilibrium and kinetics of ion exchange is fundamental for economic and safe design of industrial units, particularly to carry out the delicate scale-up studies and simulations. With regard to equilibrium, this chapter covers the following topics: (1) ion association phenomena; (2) activity coefficients in solution and exchanger phases; (3) the milestones works of Gaines and Thomas, Argersinger et al., and Ioannidis et al. to the thermodynamic treatment of ion exchange; and (4) a deep discussion of the three most important theories in the literature (homogeneous mass action models, ion adsorption and related models, and heterogeneous mass action models). Concerning ion exchange kinetics and mass transport processes, the chapter reviews semiempirical models, Fick’s law and derived expressions, Nernst–Planck equations, and the Maxwell–Stefan formulation. The chapter ends with the general modelling approaches to the omnipresent batch and fixed bed applications.


Lito PF, Cardoso SP, Loureiro JM, Silva CM

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