Selective photocatalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in aqueous suspension of polymeric carbon nitride and its adduct with H2O2 in a solar pilot plant


This work reports a study on the reactivity of polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) and PCN-H2O2 adduct samples for sunlight photocatalytic selective oxidation reactions. The characterization of these materials was reported in a previous paper where the reactivity towards the partial oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was studied by using two different laboratory scale photoreactors; one irradiated by UV lamps and the other one by natural sunlight. In the present study it has been confirmed the effectiveness of these C3N4 based materials for the selective partial oxidation of HMF to FDC (2,5-furandicarboxaldehyde) in aqueous medium in a pilot plant photoreactor irradiated by natural sunlight. The reactivity results and, in particular, the selectivity to FDC formation have been very encouraging, mostly by considering that the reaction was carried out in water. Moreover, they are comparable with those obtained in the laboratory scale photoreactors irradiated by both UV lamps and natural sunlight. Interestingly, the pristine PCN sample has shown a higher HMF conversion with respect to that of the PCN-H2O2 adduct, but the last one is more selective to the FDC formation. A kinetic study indicates that the pseudo-first-order rate constant of HMF oxidation is higher in the case of pristine photocatalyst and that the equilibrium adsorption constants of HMF is higher in the case of PCN-H2O2 adduct catalyst. Finally, the partial oxidation of two aromatic alcohols, i.e. benzyl alcohol (BA) and 4-methoxy benzyl alcohol (4-MBA) to benzaldehyde (BAL) and 4-methoxy benzaldehyde (4-MBAL), respectively, has also been studied.



subject category

Chemistry; Engineering


Ilkaeva, M; Krivtsov, I; Garcia, JR; Diaz, E; Ordonez, S; Garcia-Lopez, EI; Marci, G; Palmisano, L; Maldonado, MI; Malato, S

our authors


Authors wish to thank CIEMAT-PSA and European Commission for the funding in the framework of the EU-DG RTD's project: SFERA II contract no. 312643. University of Oviedo acknowledges the financial support from Spanish MINECO (MAT2013-40950-R, CTQ2014-52956-C3-1-R and MAT2016-78155-C2-1-R) and Gobierno del Principado de Asturias (GRUPIN14-060, GRUPIN14-078 and Severo Ochoa PhD grant BP-14-029 to MI). IK thanks for the support the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant no. 4.9722.2017/8.9).

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