Synthesis and characterisation of lead free BaFe12O19 -(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 magnetoelectric composites, and the comparison of various synthetic routes


Polycrystalline lead-free (1-x)BaFe12O19-x(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 magnetoelectric ceramic composites (x = 10, 20 and 30 wt%) were fabricated for the first time, comparing various synthesis techniques, namely solid state reaction, sol-gel, co-precipitation and citrate combustion methods for the synthesis of the ferrite phase. As well as the four synthesis routes, comparisons were made between uniaxial pressing and cold isostatic pressing of the samples prior to sintering at 1200 degrees C/2 h. Formation of separate magnetic hexaferrite BaFe12O19 (BaM) and ferroelectric (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) phases in the composites was confirmed using x-ray diffraction. The microstructural features revealed distribution of BaM and KNN grains in all the composite systems. Piezoresponse (PFM) and magnetic force (MFM) modes of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) were utilised to assess responses from piezoelectric and magnetic grains. Localised piezoelectric hysteresis loops were measured on KNN grains in composites made by all four methods. Typical hard magnetic hysteresis loops for BaM were observed exhibiting high coercivity values (up to 281 kA m(-1) or 3530 Oe), and those composites made using solid state reaction and citrate combustion methods, which contained no impurity phases, had close to maximum magnetisation values (equivalent to similar to 70 A m(2) kg(-1) for the BaM phase). SEM, MFM and magnetisation measurements all suggested that the grain size of the BaM in the composites made using solid state reaction, co-precipitation and citrate combustion methods was around 1 mu m, and consisting of single magnetic domains. As a result, it is likely that these samples will exhibit a high degree of magnetoelectric coupling. (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



subject category

Chemistry, Physical; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering


Medeiros, MSA; Coondoo, I; Oliveira, FJS; Kholkin, AL; Amaral, JS; Pullar, RC

our authors


R.C. Pullar thanks FCT (Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia, Portugal) Grant IF/00681/2015. J. S. Amaral acknowledges FCT IF/01089/2015 grant. I.C. would like to acknowledge financial assistance by national funds (OE), through FCT, I.P., in the scope of the framework contract foreseen in the numbers 4, 5 and 6 of the article 23, of the Decree-Law 57/2016, of August 29, changed by Law 57/2017, of July 19. This work was partly developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 & UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and when appropriate co-financed by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. AK thanks Russian Ministry of Science and Higher Education (megagrant agreement #075-15-2021-588 from 1.06.2021) for the partial support.

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