Chemical Characterisation, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. Bark Polar Extracts: Prospecting Forestry By-Products as Renewable Sources of Bioactive Compounds


Agroforestry by-products have gained rising attention in recent years as they represent inexpensive and abundant raw materials that are a source of added-value chemicals, e.g., for food and pharmaceutical applications, as well as for bioenergy generation. Pinus pinaster Ait. bark extracts are consumed worldwide for their cardiovascular benefits, whilst the health potential of Pinus pinea L. bark has not yet been deeply exploited. Therefore, this study highlights the chemical characterisation of Portuguese P. pinaster Ait. and P. pinea L. bark polar extracts, via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MSn) analysis, and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Quinic acid, an A-type procyanidin dimer isomer, protocatechuic acid, and quercetin were identified for the first time as P. pinea L. bark components. Moreover, this bark demonstrated a higher total content of identified polar compounds than P. pinaster Ait. bark, with quinic acid being the most abundant compound identified. Regarding antioxidant activity, the pine bark polar extracts exhibited strong reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging effects compared to natural antioxidants. Moreover, the bactericidal actions of pine bark extracts were shown against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli at a 3.13-25 mg mL(-1) range. Globally, these promising insights can boost the sustainable exploitation of P. pinea L. bark, as already occurs with P. pinaster Ait. bark, for the food and biomedical fields.



subject category

Chemistry; Engineering; Materials Science; Physics


Ramos, PAB; Pereira, C; Gomes, AP; Neto, RT; Almeida, A; Santos, SAO; Silva, AMS; Silvestre, AJD

our authors


This work was developed within the scope of the projects CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials (UIDB/50011/2020 and UIDP/50011/2020), LAQV-REQUIMTE (UIDB/50006/2020 and UIDP/50006/2020), and CESAM (UIDP/50017/2020+UIDB/50017/2020+ LA/P/0094/2020), financed by national funds through the FCT/MCTES; co-financing, when adequate, by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. P.A.B.R., A.P.G., and S.A.O.S. acknowledge the AgroForWealth project (CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-000001) funded by Centro2020, through FEDER and PT2020 for the post-doctoral grant of P.A.B.R. and A.P.G. and S.A.O.S. contracts. C.P. was supported by a junior research contract (CEEC individual/03974/2017) financed by FCT.

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