Percutaneous vertebroplasty: a new animal model


BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure and is frequently performed in humans who need surgical treatment of vertebral fractures. PVPinvolves cement injection into the vertebral body, thereby providing rapid and significant pain relief. PURPOSE: The testing of novel biomaterials depends on suitable animal models. The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible and safe model of PVP in sheep. STUDY DESIGN: This study used ex vivo and in vivo large animal model study (Merino sheep). METHODS: Ex vivo vertebroplasty was performed through a bilateral modified parapedicular access in 24 ovine lumbar hemivertebrae, divided into four groups (n= 6). Cerament (Bone Support, Lund, Sweden) was the control material. In the experimental group, a novel composite was tested-SpineGhost- which consisted of an alpha-calcium sulfate matrix enriched with micrometric particles of mesoporous bioactive glass. All vertebrae were assessed by micro-computed tomography (microCT) and underwent mechanical testing. For the in vivo study, 16 sheep were randomly allocated into control and experimental groups (n= 8), and underwent PVP using the same bone cements. All vertebrae were assessed postmortem by micro-CT, histology, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR). This work has been supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme for collaborative projects (600,000-650,000 USD). RESULTS: In the ex vivo model, the average defect volume was 1,275.46 +/- 219.29 mm(3). Adequate defect filling with cement was observed. No mechanical failure was observed under loads which were higher than physiological. In the in vivo study, cardiorespiratory distress was observed in two animals, and one sheep presented mild neurologic deficits in the hind limbs before recovering. CONCLUSIONS: The model of PVP is considered suitable for preclinical in vivo studies, mimicking clinical application. All sheep recovered and completed a 6-month implantation period. There was no evidence of cement leakage into the vertebral foramen in the postmortem examination. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.




Neurosciences & Neurology; Orthopedics


Oliveira, MT; Potes, J; Queiroga, MC; Castro, JL; Pereira, AF; Rehman, S; Dalgarno, K; Ramos, A; Vitale-Brovarone, C; Reis, JC



This work has been supported by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme through the project RESTORATION, under grant agreement 280575. The support from Medtronic Spine LLC Company, Portugal, in supplying surgical material is gratefully acknowledged. The support from Hamamatsu Photonics in supplying the Nanozoomer SQ is also gratefully acknowledged.

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