Unravelling the Potential Cytotoxic Effects of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Metal(Loid) Mixtures on A549 Human Cell Line
authors Rosario, F; Bessa, MJ; Brandao, F; Costa, C; Lopes, CB; Estrada, AC; Tavares, DS; Teixeira, JP; Reis, AT
nationality International
journal NANOMATERIALS
author keywords cytotoxicity; co-exposure; mixtures; A549; arsenic; mercury; titanium dioxide nanoparticles; cerium oxide nanoparticles; clonogenic assay; cell-cycle
keywords TITANIUM-DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES; IN-VITRO CYTOTOXICITY; TIO2 NANOPARTICLES; AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS; CEO2 NANOPARTICLES; TOXICITY; REMOVAL; GENOTOXICITY; APOPTOSIS; RISK
abstract Humans are typically exposed to environmental contaminants' mixtures that result in different toxicity than exposure to the individual counterparts. Yet, the toxicology of chemical mixtures has been overlooked. This work aims at assessing and comparing viability and cell cycle of A549 cells after exposure to single and binary mixtures of: titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NP) 0.75-75 mg/L; cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NP) 0.75-10 mu g/L; arsenic (As) 0.75-2.5 mg/L; and mercury (Hg) 5-100 mg/L. Viability was assessed through water-soluble tetrazolium (WST-1) and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) (24 h exposure) and clonogenic (seven-day exposure) assays. Cell cycle alterations were explored by flow cytometry. Viability was affected in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Prolonged exposure caused inhibition of cell proliferation even at low concentrations. Cell-cycle progression was affected by TiO2NP 75 mg/L, and As 0.75 and 2.5 mu g/L, increasing the cell proportion at G0/G1 phase. Combined exposure of TiO2NP or CeO2NP mitigated As adverse effects, increasing the cell surviving factor, but cell cycle alterations were still observed. Only CeO2NP co-exposure reduced Hg toxicity, translated in a decrease of cells in Sub-G1. Toxicity was diminished for both NPs co-exposure compared to its toxicity alone, but a marked toxicity for the highest concentrations was observed for longer exposures. These findings prove that joint toxicity of contaminants must not be disregarded.
publisher MDPI
isbn 2079-4991
year published 2020
volume 10
issue 3
digital object identifier (doi) 10.3390/nano10030447
web of science category Nanoscience & Nanotechnology; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
subject category Science & Technology - Other Topics; Materials Science
unique article identifier WOS:000526090400047
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journal impact factor 4.324
5 year journal impact factor 4.514
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