Water softening using graphene oxide/biopolymer hybrid nanomaterials
authors Rocha, LS; Nogueira, J; Daniel-da-Silva, AL; Marques, P; Fateixa, S; Pereira, E; Trindade, T
nationality International
journal JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
author keywords Water hardness; Graphene oxide; Polysaccharide; Softeners; Water treatment
keywords RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY; METAL-IONS; ADSORPTION; REMOVAL; CARRAGEENAN; KINETICS; SINGLE; NANOPARTICLES; DESALINATION; ADSORBENT
abstract There is a growing interest in developing more environmentally friendly softeners for hardness reduction of water supplied for domestic consumption. This work focuses on exploring biopolymer-based softeners, through the surface modification of graphene oxide (GO) with the anionic biopolymer kappa-carrageenan (GO-Si(kappa)CRG). The performance of the modified GO to decrease the hardness of natural waters containing high levels of Ca2+ was assessed. The sorption efficiency was dependent on the initial Ca2+ concentration and on the sorbent dose, with 8-34% removal for GO and 21-100% for GO-Si(kappa)CRG. The surface modification considerably improved the adsorptive efficiency and under certain experimental conditions, it was possible to convert very hard water (300 mg L-1 CaCO3) to soft water. Importantly, the performance was not affected by the presence of other ions typically found in natural bottled waters. The kinetics was well described by pseudo-first-order and diffusion models. The multi-linear nature observed in Boyd's and Webber's plots suggested that both film diffusion and pore diffusion controlled the sorption rate. The maximum Ca2+ sorption capacity at monolayer coverage of GO-Si (kappa)CRG was 47.6 +/- 3.2 mg g(-1). The electrostatic attraction between sulfonate groups and calcium cations is likely to be the main mechanism involved in the sorption process of Ca2+ by GO-Si(kappa)CRG. Overall, the results indicate good prospects for the development of a new class of softeners based on the GO modification described.
publisher ELSEVIER SCI LTD
isbn 2213-3437
year published 2021
volume 9
issue 1
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.jece.2021.105045
web of science category 12
subject category Engineering, Environmental; Engineering, Chemical
unique article identifier WOS:000615212200004

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