Concentrate Apple Juice Industry: Aroma and Pomace Valuation as Food Ingredients
authors Coelho, E; Pinto, M; Bastos, R; Cruz, M; Nunes, C; Rocha, SM; Coimbra, MA
nationality International
journal APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL
author keywords volatile compounds; condensed aroma; Aroma Index; odor active value; byproduct; coproduct; infusion; decoction; sugar addition; HS-SPME/GC-MS
abstract Apple concentrate juice industry generates a flavored coproduct (apple aroma) recovered in the evaporation process, which is poorly valuated due to the lack of chemical characterization and standardization. In this study, industry apple aroma was characterized, allowing for the identification of 37 compounds, the majority esters (20), alcohols (7), and aldehydes (4). The storage temperature did not affect its volatile composition. Five key compounds were selected and monitored for 10 months of storage, and also compared with other three productions of another season allowing for observation of the same Aroma Index. Apple pomace was also used to produce a hydrodistillate. Contrary to the apple aroma, apple pomace hydrodistillate was unpleasant, reflected in a different volatile composition. Although no additional aroma fraction could be obtained from this wet byproduct, when dried, apple pomace presented 15 volatile compounds with toasted, caramel, sweet, and green notes. The infusions prepared with the dried apple pomace exhibited 25 volatile compounds with a very pleasant (fruity, apple-like, citrus, and spicy notes) and intense aroma. The addition of sugar changed the volatile profile, providing a less intense flavor, with almond, caramel, and sweet notes. These results show that apple aroma and pomace are high-quality flavoring agents with high potential of valuation as food ingredients.
publisher MDPI
isbn 2076-3417
year published 2021
volume 11
issue 5
digital object identifier (doi) 10.3390/app11052443
web of science category 15
subject category Chemistry, Multidisciplinary; Engineering, Multidisciplinary; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; Physics, Applied
unique article identifier WOS:000627942200001
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journal impact factor 2.474
5 year journal impact factor 2.458
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