Virulence Characteristics and Emerging Therapies for Biofilm-Forming Acinetobacter baumannii: A Review


Simple Summary Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is one of the ESKAPE organisms and has the competency to build biofilms. These biofilms account for the most nosocomial infections all over the world. This review reflects on the various physicochemical and environmental factors such as adhesion, pili expression, growth surfaces, drug-resistant genes, and virulence factors that profoundly affect its resistant forte. Emerging drug-resistant issues and limitations to newer drugs are other factors affecting the hospital environment. Here, we discuss newer and alternative methods that can significantly enhance the susceptibility to Acinetobacter spp. Many new antibiotics are under trials, such as GSK-3342830, The Cefiderocol (S-649266), Fimsbactin, and similar. On the other hand, we can also see the impact of traditional medicine and the secondary metabolites of these natural products' application in searching for new treatments. The field of nanoparticles has demonstrated effective antimicrobial actions and has exhibited encouraging results in the field of nanomedicine. The use of various phages such as vWUPSU and phage ISTD as an alternative treatment for its specificity and effectiveness is being investigated. Cathelicidins obtained synthetically or from natural sources can effectively produce antimicrobial activity in the micromolar range. Radioimmunotherapy and photodynamic therapy have boundless prospects if explored as a therapeutic antimicrobial strategy. Acinetobacter species is one of the most prevailing nosocomial pathogens with a potent ability to develop antimicrobial resistance. It commonly causes infections where there is a prolonged utilization of medical devices such as CSF shunts, catheters, endotracheal tubes, and similar. There are several strains of Acinetobacter (A) species (spp), among which the majority are pathogenic to humans, but A. baumannii are entirely resistant to several clinically available antibiotics. The crucial mechanism that renders them a multidrug-resistant strain is their potent ability to synthesize biofilms. Biofilms provide ample opportunity for the microorganisms to withstand the harsh environment and further cause chronic infections. Several studies have enumerated multiple physiological and virulence factors responsible for the production and maintenance of biofilms. To further enhance our understanding of this pathogen, in this review, we discuss its taxonomy, pathogenesis, current treatment options, global resistance rates, mechanisms of its resistance against various groups of antimicrobials, and future therapeutics.




Life Sciences & Biomedicine - Other Topics


Dolma, KG; Khati, R; Paul, AK; Rahmatullah, M; Pereira, MD; Wilairatana, P; Khandelwal, B; Gupta, C; Gautam, D; Gupta, M; Goyal, RK; Wiart, C; Nissapatorn, V

nossos autores


K.G.D. acknowledges the TMA Pai Major Grant 2018-19 of Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim Manipal University, Sikkim, 737102, India. Thanks to Project CICECOAveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020, UIDP/50011/2020 and LA/P/0006/2020, financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC (PIDDAC).

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