Deep eutectic solvents for improved biomass pretreatment: Current status and future prospective towards sustainable processes


Pretreatment processes - recognized as critical steps for efficient biomass refining - have received much attention over the last two decades. In this context, deep eutectic solvents (DES) have emerged as a novel alternative to conventional solvents representing a step forward in achieving more sustainable processes with both environmental and economic benefits. This paper presents an updated review of the state-of-the-art of DES -based applications in biorefinery schemes. Besides describing the fundamentals of DES composition, synthesis, and recycling, this study presents a comprehensive review of existing techno-economic and life cycle assessment studies. Challenges, barriers, and perspectives for the scale-up of DES-based processes are also discussed.




Agriculture; Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology; Energy & Fuels


Contreras-Gámez, MD; Galán-Martín, A; Seixas, N; Lopes, AMD; Silvestre, A; Castro, E

nossos autores


Financial support from Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MCIN) (Grant PID2020-112594RB-C31 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by "ERDF A way of making Europe") is gratefully acknowledged. A.G.-M. thanks the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities for the financial support through the "Beatriz Galindo" Program (BG20/00074). M.d.M.C. thanks the the MCIN and the European Social Fund for the Ramon y Cajal grant (RYC2020-030546-I/AEI/10.13039/501100011033). A.G.-M. and M.d. M.C also acknowledge the project TED2021-132614A-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 by the European Union NextGenerationEU/PRTR. This work was partially developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020, UIDP/50011/2020 & LA/P/0006/2020, financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC (PIDDAC). A.M.d.C.L. thanks his research contract funded by Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FCT) and project CENTRO-04-3559-FSE-000095 - Centro Portugal Regional Operational Programme (Centro2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

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