Cassava bagasse cellulose nanofibrils reinforced thermoplastic cassava starch


Cellulose cassava bagasse nanofibrils (CBN) were directly extracted from a by-product of the cassava starch (CS) industry, viz. the cassava bagasse (CB), The morphological structure of the ensuing nanoparticles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), presence of other components such as sugars by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments. The resulting nanofibrils display a relatively low crystallinity and were found to be around 2-11 nm thick and 360-1700 nm long. These nanofibrils were used as reinforcing nanoparticles in a thermoplastic cassava starch matrix plasticized using either glycerol or a mixture of glycerol/sorbitol (1:1) as plasticizer. Nanocomposite films were prepared by a melting process. The reinforcing effect of the filler evaluated by dynamical mechanical tests (DMA) and tensile tests was found to depend on the nature of the plasticizer employed. Thus, for the glycerol-plasticized matrix-based composites, it was limited especially due to additional plasticization by sugars originating from starch hydrolysis during the acid extraction. This effect was evidenced by the reduction of glass vitreous temperature of starch after the incorporation of nanofibrils in TPSG and by the increase of elongation at break in tensile test. On the other hand, for glycerol/sorbitol plasticized nanocomposites the transcrystallization of amylopectin in nanofibrils surface hindered good performances of CBN as reinforcing agent for thermoplastic cassava starch. The incorporation of cassava bagasse cellulose nanofibrils in the thermoplastic starch matrices has resulted in a decrease of its hydrophilic character especially for glycerol plasticized sample. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.




Chemistry; Polymer Science


Teixeira, ED; Pasquini, D; Curvelo, AAS; Corradini, E; Belgacem, MN; Dufresne, A



The authors thank FAPESP (No. 03/13287-4), CAPES-CCIFECUB, and CNPq for financial support and Corn Products Brazil for supplying cassava starch samples.

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