From NORM by-products to building materials


The cementitious materials and ceramic industries are frequently looked as targets for the recycling and valorization of several wastes, residues, and by-products, generated from a wide variety of industries. In general, only technical (and chemical) aspects are covered on each attempt for recycling a waste in a particular product, while radiological features are rarely considered. This chapter aims to give new and more complete insights on the recycling of several industrial wastes, on four groups of construction materials: (1) construction materials based on Portland cements (both as cement itself and as concrete), (2) construction materials based on alkali-activated binders, (3) ceramics and glass-ceramics, and (4) gypsum. For each by-product a separate section will describe (1) the technical (and chemical) aspects of the use as part of a construction material and (2) the resulting radiological properties of the designed product, when they are available. Some ceramic industries also use radiologically active components, namely zircon and zirconia (in glazes, refractories, etc.). The radiological consequences of their production, further use/manipulation by other industrial sectors (e.g., ceramic glazes and frits production), and on the final costumers are also briefly reported.


J. Labrincha, F. Puertas, W. Schroeyers, K. Kovler, Y. Pontikes, C. Nuccetelli, P. Krivenko, O. Kovalchuk, O. Petropavlovsky, M. Komljenovic, E. Fidanchevski, R. Wiegers, E. Volceanov, E. Gunay, M.A. Sanjuán, V. Ducman, B. Angjusheva, D. Bajare, T. Kovacs, G. Bator, S. Schreurs, J. Aguiar, J.L. Provis

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