Synthesis of MOFs at the Industrial Scale


The chapter covers a survey of the large‐scale processes available for the preparation of MOFs (metal–organic frameworks)/CPs (coordination polymers), including both literature and patent survey. The first part of the chapter is devoted to a summary of the most popular MOFs which that are currently produced in both the academia and industry, namely, HKUST‐1, UiO‐66, ZIF‐8, and the Al‐MIL‐53 series, among others. Focus is given on the specific preparation techniques used to obtain these materials and how they could be (and sometimes were) transposed from batch reactions performed in academia, to large‐scale lines typically found in an industrial environment. A summary of the most significant advantages and disadvantages of some academic reactions is given. The chapter proceeds on how the industrial production of some MOFs/CPs could not be directly achieved from the academic knowledge, requiring, in most cases, numerous optimization steps to make the process sustainable and profitable. The second part of the chapter summarizes important synthetic methodologies that already proved to be useful concerning large‐scale production of MOFs/CPs in an industrial environment, some of them with impressive values of space‐time yields (STYs). Practical examples of MOFs/CPs are given demonstrating the applicability of the current implemented industrial processes.


Ana D. G. Firmino, Ricardo F. Mendes, João P.C. Tomé, Filipe A. Almeida Paz

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