Organic amendments affecting sorption, leaching and dissipation of fungicides in soils


Metalaxyl and tricyclazole are two fungicides widely used in Spain in vineyard and rice crops respectively. In this study an investigation has been made of the effect of three organic amendments [two commercial amendments, solid fertiormont (SF) and liquid fertiormont (LF), and a residue from the olive oil production industry, alperujo (OW)l on fungicide fate in soils. Changes in soil porosity on amendment were studied by mercury intrusion porosimetry, sorption-desorption studies were performed by the batch equilibration method, dissipation of metalaxyl and tricyclazole in the soil was studied at -33 kPa moisture content and 20 degrees C and leaching was studied in hand-packed soil columns. Amendments with SF and LF reduced soil porosity, while OW increased porosity through an increase in pore volume in the highest range studied. Tricyclazole sorbed to soils to a much higher extent than metalaxyl. With some exceptions, sorption of both fungicides increased on amendment, especially in the case of SF-amended soils, which rendered the highest K-oc, values. In soils amended with the liquid amendment LF, sorption either remained unaffected or decreased, and this decrease was much higher in the case of metalaxyl and a soil with 70% clay. In this clay soil, amendment with OW, of very high soluble organic matter content, also decreased metalaxyl sorption. Tricyclazole is more persistent in soil than metalaxyl, and both fungicides were found to be more persistent in amended soils than in unamended soils. Leaching of metalaxyl and tricyclazole in soil columns was inversely related to sorption capacity. The low recoveries of tricyclazole in leachates and in soil columns when compared with metalaxyl, a less persistent fungicide, were attributed to diffusion into micropores and to increase in sorption with residence time in the soil, both processes favoured by the low mobility of tricyclazole. (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.



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Agriculture; Entomology


Fernandes, MC; Cox, L; Hermosin, MC; Cornejo, J

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