Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Metabolomics of Iron Deficiency in Soybean Leaves
authors Lima, MRM; Diaz, SO; Lamego, I; Grusak, MA; Vasconcelos, MW; Gil, AM
nationality International
journal JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH
author keywords Chlorosis; Fe deficiency; Glycine max (soybean); nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS); metabolomics; multivariate analysis
keywords FIELD-GROWN PEAR; GLYCINE BETAINE; SECONDARY METABOLITES; CHLOROPHYLL METER; NMR METABOLOMICS; ACID-METABOLISM; FE-DEFICIENCY; XYLEM SAP; PLANTS; ARABIDOPSIS
abstract Iron (Fe) deficiency is an important agricultural concern that leads to lower yields and crop quality. A better understanding Of the condition at the metabolome level could contribute to the design of strategies to ameliorate Fe-deficiency problems. Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soybean leaf extracts and whole leaves were analyzed by liquid H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, respectively. Overall, 30 compounds were measurable and identifiable (comprising amino and organic acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, alcohols, polyphenols, and others), along with 22 additional spin systems (still unassigned). Thus, metabolite differences between treatment conditions could be evaluated for different compound families simultaneously. Statistically relevant metabolite changes upon Fe deficiency included higher levels of alanine, asparagine/aspartate, threonine, valine, GABA, acetate, choline, ethanolamine, hypoxanthine, trigonelline, and polyphenols and lower levels of citrate, malate, ethanol, methanol, chlorogenate, and 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate. The data indicate that the main metabolic impacts of Fe deficiency in soybean include enhanced tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, enhanced activation of oxidative stress protection mechanisms and enhanced amino acid accumulation. Metabolites showing accumulation differences in Fe-starved but visually asymptomatic leaves could serve as biomarkers for early detection of Fe-deficiency stress.
publisher AMER CHEMICAL SOC
issn 1535-3893
year published 2014
volume 13
issue 6
beginning page 3075
ending page 3087
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1021/pr500279f
web of science category Biochemical Research Methods
subject category Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
unique article identifier WOS:000337074500032
link 24738838
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