Effects of europium polyoxometalate encapsulated in silica nanoparticles (nanocarriers) in soil invertebrates
authors Bicho, RC; Soares, AMVM; Nogueira, HIS; Amorim, MJB
nationality International
author keywords Polyoxometalates; Soil ecotoxicology; Enchytraeids; Nanocarriers; Hazard
abstract Polyoxometalates (POMs) are metal oxo clusters that have been investigated for several applications in material sciences, catalysis, and biomedicine; these gained increasing interest in the field of nanotechnology as nanocarriers for drug delivery. Associated to the increasing applications, there is the need for information regarding the effects on the environment of these compounds, which is completely absent in the literature. In the present study, the effects of europium polyoxometalates encapsulated into silica nanoparticles (Eu-POM/SiO2 NPs) were assessed on the soil representative Enchytraeus crypticus. The individual materials were also assessed (Eu-POMs and SiO2 NPs). Toxicity was evaluated in various test media with increasing complexity: water, soil/water extracts, and soil. Toxicity was only observed for Eu-POM/SiO2 NPs and in the presence of soil components. Despite the fact that effects were observed for concentrations higher than current predicted environmental concentration (PEC), attention should be given to the growing use of these compounds. The present study shows the importance of assessing the effects in soil media, also compared to water. Moreover, results of "no effect" are critically needed and often unpublished. The present study can contribute to the improvement of the OECD guidelines for safety of manufactured nanomaterials on environmental toxicity in the soil compartment providing an improved test alternative.
publisher SPRINGER
issn 1388-0764
year published 2016
volume 18
issue 12
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1007/s11051-016-3662-0
web of science category Chemistry, Multidisciplinary; Nanoscience & Nanotechnology; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
subject category Chemistry; Science & Technology - Other Topics; Materials Science
unique article identifier WOS:000389899000002
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journal impact factor 2.132
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