Reviewing the Manifold Aspects of Ganciclovir Crystal Forms


Ganciclovir, an active pharmaceutical ingredient against cytomegalovirus, is known to crystallize in the form of anhydrous or hydrated phases. The crystal and molecular structures of two hydrated forms, the hydrochloride salt, and two pro-drug derivatives (i.e., the tri-N-2,O,O-acetyl and di-O-acetyl) have been successfully unveiled from powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) or single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The thermal behavior of the hydrates has been unraveled by juxtaposing the results of our thermal analysis and variable-temperature PXRD experiments to those previously reported on the topic. On the whole, this investigation revisits and complements the somehow incomplete and scattered information present in the literature. It is envisaged that this study can open the way to systematic PXRD qualitative and quantitative analysis of ganciclovir mixtures formed during synthesis, isolation, or processing.



subject category

Chemistry; Crystallography; Materials Science


Fernandes, JA; Galli, S; Palmisano, G; Volante, P; Mendes, RF; Paz, FAA; Masciocchi, N

our authors


The University of Insubria is acknowledged for providing a grant (Junior Assignee) to J.A.F. Angelo Maspero and Alessandro Cimino (University of Insubria) are acknowledged for performing part of the analytical measurements. We wish to thank Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal), the European Union, QREN, FEDER through Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade (COMPETE), and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007679 (FCT ref. UID/CTM/50011/2013), financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and when appropriate cofinanced by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. FCT is also gratefully acknowledged for the Ph.D. Grant No. SFRH/BD/84231/2012 (for R.F.M.).

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