Dispersion and flow properties of charcoal oil slurries (ChOS) as potential renewable industrial liquid fuels


This work reports on a preliminary study aimed at developing an industrial liquid fuel derived from charcoal and vegetable oil. Its relevance relies on the high energy potential of charcoal, its renewable nature, storage and transportation capacity in liquid form, as well as on the economic and environmental advantages derived thereof. The ability of a commercially available charcoal to be dispersed in three different organic solvents was assessed through the rheological characterisation of the resulting charcoal oil slurries (ChOS). The charcoal was ground in a conventional ball mill and dispersed with the aid of three different surfactants. The effects of the most relevant factors influencing the rheological properties of the suspensions were evaluated, including: (i) the solvent producing the lowest fuel viscosity (eta) at a given charcoal content; (ii) the most efficient surfactant (and its amount) minimising the fuel viscosity (eta) at a given solids fraction; and (iii) the charcoal content, which should be as high as possible. High-stability ChOS containing 62 wt% solids and 0.4 wt% surfactant, and exhibiting adequate flow properties and high calorific values, were successfully obtained. (C) 2017 Energy Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



subject category

Energy & Fuels


Loureiro, LMEF; Gil, PBF; de Campos, FVV; Nunes, LJR; Ferreira, JMF

our authors


The authors would like to acknowledge the Portuguese company YGE - Yser Green Energy SA, Portugal, a Yser Holding company, that allowed the publication of the results and the execution of the laboratory tests. This work was supported by European Union funds through FEDER - Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional, QREN - Quadro de Referencia Estrategica Nacional and the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme 2007/2013 (ON.2 - O Novo Norte), under the projects nr. 18068, and the PT2020 Partnership Agreement through the COMPETE, by the Portuguese Government through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), in the scope of the projects UID/CTM/50011/2013 (Aveiro Institute of Materials, CICECO, www.ciceco.ua.pt) and the fellowship grant Reference PTDC/CTM/99489/2008."

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