Synthesis and characterization of analogues of glycine-betaine surface-active ionic liquids


With the goal of finding sustainable solvents, novel ionic liquids (ILs) with low ecotoxicity features have been a target of research. Among these, ILs with surface-active characteristics play a significant role in the food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, household cleaning and other detergent industries. Most surface-active ILs reported up to date are imidazolium-based, which may raise some environmental and health-related concerns. Aiming the development of ILs with surfactant properties and low ecotoxicity, in this work, novel surface-active analogues of glycine-betaine ILs (AGB-SAILs) combined with the dodecylbenzenesulfonate ([DBS](-)) anion have been synthesized and characterized. The synthesized AGB-SAILs were characterized chemically by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. Their thermal properties, critical micellar concentration, micelle diameter and ecotoxicity against Aliivibrio fischeri were determined, being these properties compared with the commercial surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). It is shown that all investigated AGB-SAILs are liquid at room temperature and thermally stable. Furthermore, most of them display a lower critical micellar concentration and lower toxicity towards Aliivibrio fischeri than SDBS, thus being good alternatives to the commercial surfactant in a wide range of applications. (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



subject category

Chemistry, Physical; Physics, Atomic, Molecular & Chemical


Cardoso, IS; de Faria, ELP; Silvestre, AJD; Freire, MG; Mohamadou, A

our authors


This work was developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 & UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the FCT/MEC and when appropriate co-financed by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement. Ines S. Cardoso acknowledges the PhD grant SFRH/BD/139801/2018.

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