Hybrid Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Nanogenerators for Mechanical Energy Harvesting: A Review


Motion-driven electromagnetic-triboelectric energy generators (E-TENGs) hold a great potential to provide higher voltages, higher currents and wider operating bandwidths than both electromagnetic and triboelectric generators standing alone. Therefore, they are promising solutions to autonomously supply a broad range of highly sophisticated devices. This paper provides a thorough review focused on major recent breakthroughs in the area of electromagnetic-triboelectric vibrational energy harvesting. A detailed analysis was conducted on various architectures including rotational, pendulum, linear, sliding, cantilever, flexible blade, multidimensional and magnetoelectric, and the following hybrid technologies. They enable highly efficient ways to harvest electric energy from many forms of vibrational, rotational, biomechanical, wave, wind and thermal sources, among others. Open-circuit voltages up to 75 V, short-circuit currents up to 60 mA and instantaneous power up to 144 mW were already achieved by these nanogenerators. Their transduction mechanisms, including proposed models to make intelligible the involved physical phenomena, are also overviewed here. A comprehensive analysis was performed to compare their respective construction designs, external excitations and electric outputs. The results highlight the potential of hybrid E-TENGs to convert unused mechanical motion into electric energy for both large- and small-scale applications. Finally, this paper proposes future research directions toward optimization of energy conversion efficiency, power management, durability and stability, packaging, energy storage, operation input, research of transduction mechanisms, quantitative standardization, system integration, miniaturization and multi-energy hybrid cells.



subject category

Nanoscience & Nanotechnology; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; Physics, Applied


Vidal, JV; Slabov, V; Kholkin, AL; dos Santos, MPS

our authors


This work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (Project References: POCI-01-0145-FEDER-031132; UIDB/00481/2020; UIDP/00481/2020) and Centro Portugal Regional Operational Programme-Centro2020 (reference: CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-022083), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund. Part of this work was developed within the scope of the Project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, refs. UIDB/50011/2020 and UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the FCT/MCTES. A. L. K. thanks the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation for the support in the framework of the Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST << MISiS >> (No. K2-2020-033).

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