Potential re-use of sewage sludge as a raw material in the production of eco-friendly bricks
authors Zat, T; Bandieira, M; Sattler, N; Segadaes, AM; Cruz, RCD; Mohamad, G; Rodriguez, ED
nationality International
journal JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
author keywords Sewage sludge; Extruded ceramics; Waste valorization; Clay brick; Building material
keywords WATER-TREATMENT-PLANT; LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE; WASTE; CLAY; VALORIZATION; CERAMICS; ASH; PERSPECTIVES; TILES
abstract Wastewater (sewage) treatment plants generate a high volume of sludge that, although it is classified as class II-A (not inert) non-hazardous waste, is commonly disposed of in sanitary landfills. Hence the environmental urge to assess its valorization possibilities. The present study describes the use of a sewage sludge as raw material in the production of red ceramic bricks by extrusion, focusing on the technological changes brought about by the presence of the sludge during the plastic forming process, in terms of the plasticity of the mixture and its subsequent extrudability. To quantitatively identify the best moisture conditions for the extrusion of high-quality products, shear strain amplitude sweep (torsional) tests were conducted on green (moist) prismatic samples produced with different moisture and sludge contents. For sewage sludge contents up to 10 wt%, the optimal moisture content was identified at 31-33 wt%. Higher water demand was identified for 15 wt% of sludge, for which optimal extrusion results required 35 wt% moisture. The total linear shrinkage after drying and firing, as well as the water absorption, were within the limits required for ceramic bricks for all the sludge contents. The results for compressive strength of the fired bricks also demonstrate that the incorporation of up to 15 wt% sewage sludge into the clay mixture is highly feasible for the production of extruded ceramic bricks.
publisher ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
issn 0301-4797
isbn 1095-8630
year published 2021
volume 297
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113238
web of science category 12
subject category Environmental Sciences
unique article identifier WOS:000691261500003
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journal impact factor 5.647
5 year journal impact factor 5.708
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