Features, Pharmacological Chemistry, Molecular Mechanism and Health Benefits of Lemon


Background: Citrus limon, a Mediterranean-grown citrus species of plants belonging to the Rutaceae family, occupies a place of an impressive range of food and medicinal uses with considerable value in the economy of the fruit of the country. Citrus fruits are economically important with large-scale production of both the fresh fruits and industrially processed products. The extracts and phytochemicals obtained from all parts of C. limon have shown immense therapeutic potential because of their anticancer, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory nature, and also serve as an important ingredient in the formulation of several ethnic herbal medicines. These properties are mediated by the presence of different phytochemicals, vitamins and nutrients in the citrus fruits. Material and methods: The methods involved in the preparation of the present article included the collection of information from various scientific databases, indexed periodicals, and search engines such as Medline Scopus google scholar PubMed, PubMed central web of science, and science direct. Results: This communication presents an updated account of different pharmacological aspects of C. limon associated with its anti-oxidative, antiulcer, antihelmintic, insecticidal, anticancer, cytotoxic, and estrogenic activities. In addition, C. limon extracts possess hepatoprotective, anti-hyperglycemic, and antimicrobial properties. The present article includes the structure and function of different key chemical constituents from different parts of C. limon. Also, the possible molecular mechanisms of actions of bioactive compounds from C. limon are displayed. Conclusion: The traditional and ethno-medicinal literature revealed that C. limon is very effective in different pathologies. Most of these compounds possessing antioxidant properties would be implicated in offering health benefits by acting as potential nutraceuticals to humans with special reference to disease management of health and disease.



subject category

Chemistry, Medicinal


Singh, N; Yarla, NS; Siddiqi, NJ; Pereira, MD; Sharma, B

our authors


NS and BS are grateful to the University Grant Commission, New Delhi, and UPCST-Lucknow for providing financial assistance in the form of a Research Fellowship to NS and a research grant to BS. The grant no of UPCST-Lucknow is CST/D-8240. MLP thanks to the University of Aveiro (Portugal), FCT and FEDER Funds through Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE, under project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 & UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology/MCTES.

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